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Thermoelectric generator setup for ProboStat

"Roughly half of worlds primary energy consumption is lost as waste heat."

ProboStat accessory (ProboTEG) allows mounting four thermoelectric legs (5 x 5 mm area, 10 mm length, 2x p-type, 2x n-type) into a module that can be exposed to temperature gradients up to 600ºC with the hot side over 1000ºC, and under controlled atmospheres.

The module can be characterized with any AC or DC method, and is especially suitable for studies of long term performance and degradation under (stable or dynamic) temperatures, gradients and atmospheres.

These articles refer to ProboStat or other NORECS products, filtered with keywords: 'Seebeck, thermoelectric, TEG, figure of merit'  
ID=603

From insulator to oxide-ion conductor by a synergistic effect from defect chemistry and microstructure: acceptor-doped Bi-excess sodium bismuth titanate Na0.5Bi0.51TiO3.015

Authors Fan Yang, Julian S. Dean, Qiaodan Hu, Patrick Wu, Emilio Pradal-Velázquez, Linhao Li and Derek C. Sinclair
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue: 47 Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract The influence of Ti-site acceptor-doping (Mg2+, Zn2+, Sc3+, Ga3+ and Al3+) on the electrical conductivity and conduction mechanism of a nominally Bi-excess sodium bismuth titanate perovskite, Na0.5Bi0.51TiO3.015 (NB0.51T), is reported. Low levels of acceptor-type dopants can introduce appreciable levels of oxide-ion conductivity into NB0.51T, i.e., 0.5% Mg-doping for Ti4+ can enhance the bulk conductivity of NB0.51T by more than 3 orders of magnitude with the oxide-ion transport number going from <0.1 for NB0.51T to >0.9 at 600 °C. The intriguing electrical behaviour in acceptor-doped NB0.51T dielectrics is a synergistic effect based on the defect chemistry and ceramic microstructure in these materials. NB0.51T ceramics with extremely low levels of doping show an inhomogeneous microstructure with randomly distributed large grains embedded in a small grained matrix. This can be considered as a two-phase composite with large grains as a conductive phase and small grains as an insulating phase based on an empirical conductivity – grain size relationship. Variation in the fraction of the conductive, large grained phase with increasing doping levels agrees with the oxide-ion transport number. This electrical two-phase model is supported by finite element modelling. This study reveals the significance of ceramic microstructure on the electrical conduction behaviour of these materials and can provide a guideline for selecting suitable doping strategies to meet the electrical property requirements of NBT-based ceramics for different applications.
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ID=596

Strategies to Mitigate the Degradation of Stainless-SteelInterconnects Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Author Claudia Gоbel
Source
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Interconnects are a vital part of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), where they electricallyconnect individual cells to form a fuel cell stack. They are a main contributor to theoverall stack cost and the limited life-time of fuel cells, and, therefore, improvementscarried out on the interconnect level could further the commercialization of SOFCs.The limited life-time of the interconnect is related to the material used today, ferriticstainless steels (FSS). FSS interconnects are more cost-effective than previously usedceramics, but they degrade under the conditions prevalent in an SOFC: high temperaturesbetween 600°C and 850°C, and a p(O2) gradient. Certain corrosion phenomena thatoccur, such as Cr evaporation and continuous oxide scale growth, negatively impact cellperformance due to cathode poisoning and increased electrical resistance, respectively.These phenomena have been found to be effectively mitigated by coatings, such as the(Co,Mn)3O4(MCO) coating, or reactive element coatings, such as Ce.The present thesis examines these coatings with regard to three aspects: (i) doesthe semi-conducting spinel coating affect the electrical resistance of the interconnectnegatively, or is its conductivity negligible in comparison to the continuously growingCr2O3scale below it; (ii) does the coating self-heal if it is cracked even at intermediatetemperatures, i.e. 650°C and 750°C, or do the cracks persist and increase Cr evaporation;and (iii) is the long-term stability of the state-of-the-art Ce/Co coating (10 nm Ce/640 nmCo) still effective after 35 000 h, or not. The second aspect is not only important tounderstand corrosion behavior, but it would also allow for large-scale roll-to-roll PVDcoating, which is significantly more cost-effective than batch coating.Another corrosion phenomenon that is elucidated within the scope of this work is thedual atmosphere effect. This effect leads to increased corrosion on the air-facing side ofthe interconnect if the FSS is exposed to a dual atmosphere, i.e. air on one side andhydrogen on the other side, compared to if the FSS is exposed to an air-only atmosphere.A new theory as to why the dual atmosphere effect occurs is proposed, and it is indirectlyverified by means of excluding all other possibilities. Factors that influence the dualatmosphere effect are discussed, and it is shown how the dual atmosphere effect could, inpart, be mitigated.
Keywords Solid Oxide Fuel Cell; Corrosion; Interconnect; Cr Evaporation; Area SpecificResistance; Deformation; Long-term; Dual Atmosphere; Hydrogen
Remark THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
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ID=576

Defects and polaronic electron transport in Fe2WO6

Authors Raphael Schuler, Truls Norby, Helmer Fjellvåg
Source
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue: 27 Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract We report the synthesis of phase pure Fe2WO6 and its structural characterization by high quality synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction, followed by studies of electric and thermoelectric properties as a function of temperature (200–950 °C) and pO2 (1–10−3 bar). The results are shown to be in accordance with a defect chemical model comprising formation of oxygen vacancies and charge compensating electrons at high temperatures. The standard enthalpy and entropy of formation of an oxygen vacancy and two electrons in Fe2WO6 are found to be 113(5) kJ mol−1 and 41(5) J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Electrons residing as Fe2+ in the Fe3+ host structure act as charge carriers in a small polaron conducting manner. A freezing-in of oxygen vacancies below approximately 650 °C results in a region of constant charge carrier concentration, corresponding to an iron site fraction of XFe2+ ≅ 0.03. By decoupling of mobility from conductivity, we find a polaron hopping activation energy of 0.34(1) eV and a charge mobility pre-exponential u0 = 400(50) cm2 kV−1 s−1. We report thermal conductivity for the first time for Fe2WO6. The relatively high conductivity, large negative Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity make Fe2WO6 an interesting candidate as an n-type thermoelectric in air, for which we report a maximum zT of 0.027 at 900 °C.
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ID=547

Tuning of Mg content to enhance the thermoelectric properties in binary Mg2+δ Si (δ = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2)

Authors Priyadarshini Balasubramanian, Manjusha Battabyal, Dhruba Das, Arumugam Chandra Bose and Raghavan Gopalan
Source
Materials Research Express
Volume: 6 Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract We report the enhanced thermoelectric properties of binary Mg2Si by tuning the Mg content. Polycrystalline Mg2+δ Si (where δ is the excess Mg content in the starting composition of the samples and δ = 0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2) samples were processed by solid-state synthesis route using ball milling followed by rapid spark plasma sintering in order to minimize the Mg loss during processing. Microstructural and x-ray diffraction analysis revealed that, Mg content (δ) of 0.1–0.15 is required to get the binary Mg2Si phase without any elemental Mg/Si phase. Hall effect measurement and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis show that, the excess Mg content helps to enhance the carrier concentration and charge carrier effective mass due to the occupancy of Mg at the interstitial site in Mg2Si structure. The influence of Mg content on thermoelectric properties, viz., electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity is investigated from 300 K to 780 K. A marked enhancement in thermoelectric power factor (~1.6 mW m−2K−2) is obtained for Mg2.15Si sample at 780 K. The occupancy of excess Mg at interstitial sites reduces the lattice thermal conductivity by lowering lattice symmetry. A maximum figure of merit (ZT) ~ 0.39 ± 0.03 at 780 K has been achieved in Mg2.15Si sample, the highest among that reported in n-type binary Mg2Si system. This suggests that excess Mg content in the starting composition of Mg2+δ Si helps in stabilizing the phase as well as improves the thermoelectric properties of the Mg2Si.
Remark https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ab58fb
Link
ID=530

Surface Reconstruction under the Exposure of Electric Fields Enhances the Reactivity of Donor-Doped SrTiO3

Authors Bu&#287;ra Kayaalp, Kurt Klauke, Mattia Biesuz, Alessandro Iannaci, Vincenzo M. Sglavo, Massimiliano D&#8217;Arienzo, Heshmat Noei, Siwon Lee, WooChul Jung, Simone Mascotto
Source
J. Phys. Chem. C
Volume: 123, Issue: 27, Pages: 16883-16892
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract In the present work, we show how exposure to electric fields during a high-temperature treatment can be used to manipulate surface properties of donor-doped ceramics and thus improve their reactivity. La0.1Sr0.9TiO3 (LSTO) nanoparticles, prepared by hydrothermal synthesis, were consolidated under air with and without external electric fields. Although neither approaches caused grain growth upon consolidation, the treatment under the influence of the electric field (i.e., flash sintering) remarkably enhanced the segregation of Sr on the material’s surface. In addition, a high concentration of O– defects both in bulk as well as on the material surface was demonstrated by spectroscopic methods. This enhanced defect concentration along with the nanoscopic grain size of the field-consolidated materials is probably one of the triggering factors of their improved charge carrier mobility, as observed by impedance spectroscopy. The effect of such a perturbed defect structure on the reactivity of the materials was evaluated by the total oxidation of methane. For materials treated under the influence of electric fields, the catalytic reaction rate improved by a factor of 3 with respect to that of conventionally treated LSTO, along with a remarkable decrease of the activation energy. Thus, electric-field-assisted processes, usually known for their energy-saving character, can also be deemed as an attractive, forward-looking strategy for improving functional properties of ceramics.
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ID=514

Tuning the optical and thermoelectric properties of SrTi0.8−x Sn0.2FexO3

Authors Keerthana Muthamilselvam, M Mayarani, G Mohan Muralikrishna, Manjusha Battabyal, and Raghavan Gopalan
Source
Materials Research Express
Volume: 6, Issue: 4 Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Effect of Fe doping on the structure, optical and thermoelectric properties of SrTi0.8Sn0.2O3 sample has been investigated. The SrTi0.8−xSn0.2FexO3 (x = 0, 0.1, 0.3) samples are fabricated using solid-state synthesis route. It is observed that Fe doping helps in reducing the densification temperature of SrTi0.8Sn0.2O3 during spark plasma sintering. Precipitation of Sn has been observed in SrTi0.8−xSn0.2FexO3 (x = 0, 0.1) samples while the SrTi0.8−xSn0.2FexO3 (x = 0.3) sample is of purely single cubic perovskite phase. All the samples consist of nanocrystalline grains and the grain size varies between 150 to 200 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis reveals the distortion of TiO6 octahedra due to the increase in Fe content. Raman spectroscopy analysis has shown that perovskite cubic structure is stable from room temperature to 873 K. From thermophysical measurements, it is shown that the Fermi band gap reduces from 2.87 to 0.66 eV with increase in Fe in the investigated samples. The Seebeck co-efficient is found to change the sign from n –type to p-type with the increase of Fe concentration in SrTi0.8Sn0.2O3, which is an interesting observation to obtain p-type SrTiO3 based thermoelectric materials. The optical and thermoelectric properties show that Fe doping improves the thermoelectric properties of SrTi0.8Sn0.2O3 ceramics by altering the Seebeck co-efficient and thermal conductivity.
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ID=513

Template-free mesoporous La0.3Sr0.7Ti1-xFexO3±δ for CH4 and CO oxidation catalysis

Authors Bu&#287;ra Kayaalp, Siwon Lee, Kurt Klauke, Jongsu Seo, Luca Nodaric, Andreas Kornowski, WooChul Jung, Simone Mascotto
Source
Applied catalysis B: Enviromental
Volume: 245, Pages: 536-545
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract The design of perovskite oxides with improved textural properties in combination with tunable composition variations is a forward-looking strategy for the preparation of next generation catalytic converter. In the present work we report the template-free synthesis of mesoporous solid solutions of La0.3Sr0.7Ti1-xFexO3±δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and the study of their catalytic performance towards CH4 and CO oxidation. Using an innovative polymer complex route, phase pure perovskite solid solutions with specific surface area of 65 m2 g−1 and average pore size of 15 nm were prepared. The iron concentration increase led to a progressive enhancement of not only both concentration and transport of the charge carriers but also reducibility and oxygen desorption capability on the catalyst. As a result, we observed almost complete conversion of CH4 and CO at 600 °C and 300 °C, respectively. Kinetic studies on methane oxidation showed that competing suprafacial and intrafacial reaction mechanisms coexist, and that the concentration of 30% of Fe maximizes the suprafacial contribution. Under reducing conditions at 600 °C the materials retained their structural and morphological integrity, showing superior stability. Finally, the reaction rate of CH4 and CO conversion evidenced that our systems are by a maximum of 90 times more performing than other bulk and nanoporous Fe-based perovskites in literature (e.g. La0.66Sr0.34Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ), as a result their large surface area, intimate gas-solid contact and short intragrain oxygen diffusion pathways induced by the mesoporous structure.
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ID=508

Improved CO2 flux by dissolution of oxide ions into the molten carbonate phase of dual-phase CO2 separation membranes

Authors Wen Xing, Zuoan Li, Thijs Peters, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Michael McCann, Anna Evans, Truls Norby, Rune Bredesen
Source
Separation and Purification Technology
Volume: 212, Pages: 723-727
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract In a solid-liquid dual-phase CO2 separation membrane, the native ions in the molten alkali carbonate, including carbonate anions and metal cations can transport CO2 in a process that is charge-compensated by electronic species (electrons or holes), oxide ions, or hydroxide ions, depending on materials and conditions. This strongly affects the design of experiments for assessing the performance of these membranes, and further determines the routes for integration of these membranes in industrial applications. Here we report how dissolved oxides in the liquid carbonate improve the CO2 flux of the membrane due to an enhanced charge-compensating oxygen ion transport. A qualitative understanding of the magnitude and role of oxide ion conductivity in the molten phase and in the solid support as a function of the temperature is provided. Employing a solid matrix of ceria, and dissolving CsVO3 and MoO3 oxides in the molten carbonate phase led to an almost doubled CO2 flux at 550 °C under dry ambient conditions. When the sweep gas contained 2.5% H2O, the CO2 flux was increased further due to formation of hydroxide ions in the molten carbonate acting as charge compensating species. Also, as a consequence of permeation controlled by ions in the liquid phase, the CO2 flux increased with the pore volume of the solid matrix.
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ID=504

A comprehensive study on improved power materials for high-temperature thermoelectric generators

Authors
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 410-411, Pages: 143-151
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Dense Ca3Co4O9-NaxCoO2-Bi2Ca2Co2O9 (CCO-NCO-BCCO) nanocomposites were produced from sol-gel derived Ca2.25Na0.3Bi0.35Tb0.1Co4O9 powder by four methods: Hot-pressing (HP), spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering in air or O2 atmosphere. Nanocomposites from HP and SPS revealed nanosized grains and showed a thermoelectric power factor of 4.8 and 6.6 μW cm−1 K−2, respectively, at 1073 K in air. A dense 2D nanocomposite with structures on multiple length scales and enhanced thermoelectric properties was obtained from pressureless sintering in O2 atmosphere. The resulting 2D nanocomposite enabled the simultaneous increase in isothermal electrical conductivity σ and Seebeck coefficient α, and showed a thermoelectric power factor of 8.2 μW cm−1 K−2 at 1073 K in air. The impact of materials with enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor on the electrical power output of thermoelectric generators was verified in prototypes. A high electrical power output and power density of 22.7 mW and 113.5 mW cm−2, respectively, were obtained, when a hot-side temperature of 1073 K and a temperature difference of 251 K were applied. Different p- and n-type materials were used to verify the effect of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit and power factor on the performance of thermoelectric generators.
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ID=494

Computational Prediction and Experimental Realization of p-Type Carriers in the Wide-Band-Gap Oxide SrZn1–xLixO2

Authors Christos A. Tzitzeklis, Jyoti K. Gupta, Matthew S. Dyer, Troy D. Manning, Michael J. Pitcher, Hongjun J. Niu, Stanislav Savvin, Jonathan Alaria, George R. Darling, John B. Claridge, and Matthew J. Rosseinsky
Source
Inorg. Chem.
Volume: 57, Issue: 19, Pages: 11874-11883
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract It is challenging to achieve p-type doping of zinc oxides (ZnO), which are of interest as transparent conductors in optoelectronics. A ZnO-related ternary compound, SrZnO2, was investigated as a potential host for p-type conductivity. First-principles investigations were used to select from a range of candidate dopants the substitution of Li+ for Zn2+ as a stable, potentially p-type, doping mechanism in SrZnO2. Subsequently, single-phase bulk samples of a new p-type-doped oxide, SrZn1–xLixO2 (0 < x < 0.06), were prepared. The structural, compositional, and physical properties of both the parent SrZnO2 and SrZn1–xLixO2 were experimentally verified. The band gap of SrZnO2 was calculated using HSE06 at 3.80 eV and experimentally measured at 4.27 eV, which confirmed the optical transparency of the material. Powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis were combined to show that single-phase ceramic samples can be accessed in the compositional range x < 0.06. A positive Seebeck coefficient of 353(4) μV K–1 for SrZn1–xLixO2, where x = 0.021, confirmed that the compound is a p-type conductor, which is consistent with the pO2 dependence of the electrical conductivity observed in all SrZn1–xLixO2 samples. The conductivity of SrZn1–xLixO2 is up to 15 times greater than that of undoped SrZnO2 (for x = 0.028 σ = 2.53 μS cm–1 at 600 °C and 1 atm of O2).
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ID=493

Microstructure and doping effect on the enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of Ni doped Dy filled CoSb3 skutterudites

Authors Vikrant Trivedi, Manjusha Battabyal, Priyadarshini Balasubramanian, G. Mohan Muralikrishna, Pawan Kumar Jain and Raghavan Gopalan
Source
Sustainable Energy Fuels
Volume: 2, Pages: 2687-2697
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract The thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Ni doped Dy filled CoSb3 skutterudites (Dy0.4Co4−xNixSb12 (x = 0, 0.4, and 0.8)) have been reported. The samples are processed using a solid-state synthesis route. The structural analysis of the samples using X-ray diffraction reveals the existence of a single skutterudite phase in Ni doped samples irrespective of the Ni concentration. Microstructure studies using transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy show the existence of nanometer (∼60 nm) size equiaxed grains in the investigated samples. A few recrystallized elongated grains (∼200 nm) are observed in the Dy0.4Co3.2Ni0.8Sb12 sample. The power factor of the Dy0.4Co3.2Ni0.8Sb12 sample is enhanced to 5.2 mW mK−2, which is the highest power factor for the doped ternary skutterudites reported so far. The enhancement of the power factor is due to the substantial reduction in electrical resistivity with an increase in Ni concentration at higher temperature. The lattice thermal conductivity is drastically reduced to 0.3 W mK−1 at 773 K in the Dy0.4Co3.2Ni0.8Sb12 sample due to the enhanced phonon scattering from Ni induced point defects and grain boundaries. As a result, a huge increase in the figure of merit (ZT ∼ 1.4 ± 0.14) at 773 K is observed in the Dy0.4Co3.2Ni0.8Sb12 sample, the highest among those of the single element filled CoSb3 skutterudites reported so far at this temperature. Hence, Ni doping could enhance the thermoelectric efficiency of Dy filled CoSb3 skutterudites. This can be taken as a reference to synthesize CoSb3 skutterudite thermoelectric materials having a higher figure of merit.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C8SE00395E
Link
ID=492

Computational Prediction and Experimental Realization of p-Type Carriers in the Wide-Band-Gap Oxide SrZn1–xLixO2

Authors Christos A. Tzitzeklis, Jyoti K. Gupta, Matthew S. Dyer, Troy D. Manning, Michael J. Pitcher, Hongjun J. Niu, Stanislav Savvin, Jonathan Alaria, George R. Darling, John B. Claridge, and Matthew J. Rosseinsky
Source
Inorg. Chem.
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract It is challenging to achieve p-type doping of zinc oxides (ZnO), which are of interest as transparent conductors in optoelectronics. A ZnO-related ternary compound, SrZnO2, was investigated as a potential host for p-type conductivity. First-principles investigations were used to select from a range of candidate dopants the substitution of Li+ for Zn2+ as a stable, potentially p-type, doping mechanism in SrZnO2. Subsequently, single-phase bulk samples of a new p-type-doped oxide, SrZn1–xLixO2 (0 < x < 0.06), were prepared. The structural, compositional, and physical properties of both the parent SrZnO2 and SrZn1–xLixO2 were experimentally verified. The band gap of SrZnO2 was calculated using HSE06 at 3.80 eV and experimentally measured at 4.27 eV, which confirmed the optical transparency of the material. Powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis were combined to show that single-phase ceramic samples can be accessed in the compositional range x < 0.06. A positive Seebeck coefficient of 353(4) μV K–1 for SrZn1–xLixO2, where x = 0.021, confirmed that the compound is a p-type conductor, which is consistent with the pO2 dependence of the electrical conductivity observed in all SrZn1–xLixO2 samples. The conductivity of SrZn1–xLixO2 is up to 15 times greater than that of undoped SrZnO2 (for x = 0.028 σ = 2.53 μS cm–1 at 600 °C and 1 atm of O2).
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00697
Link
ID=488

All-Oxide Thermoelectric Module with in Situ Formed Non-Rectifying Complex p–p–n Junction and Transverse Thermoelectric Effect

Authors Nikola Kanas, Michael Bittner, Temesgen Debelo Desissa, Sathya Prakash Singh, Truls Norby, Armin Feldhoff, Tor Grande, Kjell Wiik, and Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Source
ACS Omega
Volume: 3, Issue: 8, Pages: 9899–9906
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract All-oxide thermoelectric modules for energy harvesting are attractive because of high-temperature stability, low cost, and the potential to use nonscarce and nontoxic elements. Thermoelectric modules are mostly fabricated in the conventional π-design, associated with the challenge of unstable metallic interconnects at high temperature. Here, we report on a novel approach for fabrication of a thermoelectric module with an in situ formed p–p–n junction made of state-of-the-art oxides Ca3Co4–xO9+δ (p-type) and CaMnO3–CaMn2O4 composite (n-type). The module was fabricated by spark plasma co-sintering of p- and n-type powders partly separated by insulating LaAlO3. Where the n- and p-type materials originally were in contact, a layer of p-type Ca3CoMnO6 was formed in situ. The hence formed p–p–n junction exhibited Ohmic behavior and a transverse thermoelectric effect, boosting the open-circuit voltage of the module. The performance of the module was characterized at 700–900 °C, with the highest power output of 5.7 mW (around 23 mW/cm2) at 900 °C and a temperature difference of 160 K. The thermoelectric properties of the p- and n-type materials were measured in the temperature range 100–900 °C, where the highest zT of 0.39 and 0.05 were obtained at 700 and 800 °C, respectively, for Ca3Co4–xO9+δ and the CaMnO3–CaMn2O4 composite.
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01357
ID=475

Thermoelectric properties of (1-x)LaCoO3.xLa0.7Sr0.3MnO3 composite

Authors Ashutosh Kumar, Karuna Kumari, B. Jayachandran, D. Sivaprahasam, Ajay D.Thakur
Source
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume: 749, Pages: 1092-1097
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract We report the thermoelectric (TE) properties of (1-x)LaCoO3.xLa0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (0 < x < 0.50) composite in a temperature range 320–800 K. Addition of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 to LaCoO3 in small amount (5 weight %) improves the overall Seebeck coefficient (α) at higher temperatures. The electrical conductivity however decreases due to a decrease in carrier concentration of the composite. The decrease in electrical conductivity of the composite at high temperature may be attributed to the insulating nature of the LSMO above room temperature. Thermal conductivity (κ) of all the samples increases with an increase in the temperature, but decreases with increasing LSMO content. We also report the local variation of Seebeck coefficient across the composite samples measured using a precision Seebeck measurement system. A maximum value of 0.09 for the figure of merit (ZT) is obtained for 0.95LaCoO3.0.05La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 at 620 K which is significantly higher than the ZT of either of LaCoO3 or La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 at 620 K. This suggests the potential for enhancement of operating temperatures of hitherto well known low temperature thermoelectric materials through suitable compositing approach.
Keywords Thermal conductivity, Electrical conductivity, Perovskites, Manganites, Cobaltate, Composite
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.03.347
Link
ID=468

Inter-diffusion across a direct p-n heterojunction of Li-doped NiO and Al-doped ZnO

Authors Temesgen D. Desissa, Reidar Haugsrud, Kjell Wiik, Truls Norby
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 320, Pages: 215-220
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract We herein report inter-diffusion across the interface between p-type Ni0.98Li0.02O and n-type Zn0.98Al0.02O for various applications including p-n-heterojunction diodes and oxide thermoelectrics. Diffusion couples were made of polished surfaces of ceramic samples pre-sintered at 1250 and 1350 °C for Ni0.98Li0.02O and Zn0.98Al0.02O, respectively. The inter-diffusion couples were annealed at 900–1200 °C for 160 h in ambient air. Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to acquire diffusion profiles, followed by fitting to Ficks second law and Whipple–Le Claires models for bulk and grain-boundary diffusion calculation, respectively. Zn2+ diffused into Ni0.98Li0.02O mainly by bulk diffusion with an activation energy of 250 ± 10 kJ/mol, whereas Ni2+ diffused into Zn0.98Al0.02O by both bulk and enhanced grain boundary diffusion with activation energies of 320 ± 120 kJ/mol and 245 ± 50 kJ/mol, respectively. The amount of Al3+ diffused from the Al-doped ZnO into the NiO phase was too small for a corresponding diffusion coefficient to be calculated. Li-ion distribution and diffusivity were not determined due to lack of analyzer sensitivity for Li. The bulk and effective diffusivities of Zn2+ and Ni2+ into NiO and ZnO enable prediction of inter-diffusion lengths as a function of time and temperature, allowing estimates of device performance, stability, and lifetimes at different operation temperatures.
Keywords NiO, ZnO, Cation diffusion, Grain-boundary diffusion, p-n junction
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2018.03.011
Link
ID=458

Solid oxide fuel cells with apatite-type lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

Authors Yi-Xin Liu, Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Chi-Hua Wang
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 381, Pages: 101-106
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing high-quality apatite-type magnesium doped lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films (LSMO) deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are successfully fabricated. The LSMO film deposited at an Ar:O2 ratio of 6:4 on an anode supported NiO/Sm0.2Ce0·8O2-δ (SDC) substrate followed by post-annealing at 1000 °C reveals a uniform and dense c-axis oriented polycrystalline structure, which is well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite SDC/La0·6Sr0·4Co0·2Fe0·8O3-δ cathode layer is subsequently screen-printed on the LSMO deposited anode substrate and fired. The SOFC fabricated with the LSMO film exhibits good mechanical integrity. The single cell with the LSMO layer of ≈2.8 μm thickness reports a total cell resistance of 1.156 and 0.163 Ωcm2, open circuit voltage of 1.051 and 0.982 V, and maximum power densities of 0.212 and 1.490 Wcm−2 at measurement temperatures of 700 and 850 °C, respectively, which are comparable or superior to those of previously reported SOFCs with yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte films. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of high-quality LSMO films by RF magnetron sputtering on NiO-SDC anode substrates for the fabrication of SOFCs with good cell performance.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, Sputtering, Electrolyte Doped lanthanum silicate
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.02.007
Link
ID=446

Enhanced Flexible Thermoelectric Generators Based on Oxide–Metal Composite Materials

Authors Benjamin Geppert, Artur Brittner, Lailah Helmich, Michael Bittner, Armin Feldhoff
Source
Journal of Electronic Materials
Volume: 46, Issue: 4, Pages: 2356–2365
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The thermoelectric performance of flexible thermoelectric generator stripes was investigated in terms of different material combinations. The thermoelectric generators were constructed using Cu-Ni-Mn alloy as n-type legs while varying the p-type leg material by including a metallic silver phase and an oxidic copper phase. For the synthesis of Ca3Co4O9/CuO/Ag ceramic-based composite materials, silver and the copper were added to the sol–gel batches in the form of nitrates. For both additional elements, the isothermal specific electronic conductivity increases with increasing amounts of Ag and CuO in the samples. The amounts for Ag and Cu were 0 mol.%, 2 mol.%, 5 mol.%, 10 mol.%, and 20 mol.%. The phases were confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, secondary electron microscopy including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were processed in the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. For each p-type material, the data for the thermoelectric parameters, isothermal specific electronic conductivity σ and the Seebeck coefficient α, were determined. The p-type material with a content of 5 mol.% Ag and Cu exhibited a local maximum of the power factor and led to the generator with the highest electric power output Pel.
Remark Link
ID=427

Influence of processing on stability, microstructure and thermoelectric properties of Ca3Co4 − xO9 + δ

Authors Nikola Kanasac Sathy, Prakash Singh, Magnus Rotan, Mohsin Saleemi, Michael Bittner, Armin Feldhoff, Truls Norby, Kjell Wiika, Tor Grande, Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Due to high figure of merit, Ca3Co4 − xO9 + δ (CCO) has potential as p-type material for high-temperature thermoelectrics. Here, the influence of processing including solid state sintering, spark plasma sintering and post-calcination on stability, microstructure and thermoelectric properties is reported. By a new post-calcination approach, single-phase materials were obtained from precursors to final dense ceramics in one step. The highest zT of 0.11 was recorded at 800 °C for CCO with 98 and 72% relative densities. In situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction in air and oxygen revealed a higher stability of CCO in oxygen (∼970 °C) than in air (∼930 °C), with formation of Ca3Co2O6 which also showed high stability in oxygen, even at 1125 °C. Since achievement of phase pure high density CCO by post-calcination method in air is challenging, the phase stability of CCO in oxygen is important for understanding and further improvement of the method.
Keywords Ca3Co4 &#8722; xO9 + &#948;, Post calcination, Phase stability, Microstructure, Thermoelectric performance
Remark Available online 6 November 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.11.011
Link
ID=421

Defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue: 38 Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract BiFeO3 attracts considerable attention for its rich functional properties, including room temperature coexistence of magnetic order and ferroelectricity and more recently, the discovery of conduction pathways along ferroelectric domain walls. Here, insights into the defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3 are obtained by in situ measurements of electrical conductivity, σ, and Seebeck coefficient, α, of undoped, cation-stoichiometric BiFeO3 and acceptor-doped Bi1−xCaxFeO3−δ ceramics as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure pO2. Bi1−xCaxFeO3−δ exhibits p-type conduction; the dependencies of σ and α on pO2 show that Ca dopants are compensated mainly by oxygen vacancies. By contrast, undoped BiFeO3 shows a simultaneous increase of σ and α with increasing pO2, indicating intrinsic behavior with electrons and holes as the main defect species in almost equal concentrations. The pO2-dependency of σ and α cannot be described by a single point defect model but instead, is quantitatively described by a combination of intrinsic and acceptor-doped characteristics attributable to parallel conduction pathways through undoped grains and defect-containing domain walls; both contribute to the total charge transport in BiFeO3. Based on this model, we discuss the charge transport mechanism and carrier mobilities of BiFeO3 and show that several previous experimental findings can readily be explained within the proposed model.
Remark Link
ID=417

On the formation of phases and their influence on the thermal stability and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured zinc antimonide

Authors Priyadarshini Balasubramanian, Manjusha Battabyal, Duraiswamy Sivaprahasam and Raghavan Gopalan
Source
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 50, Issue: 1 Time of Publication: 2016-11
Abstract To investigate the thermal reliability of the structure and thermoelectric properties of the zinc antimony compounds, undoped (Zn4Sb3) and doped (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05 and Co0.05Zn3.95Sb3) zinc antimonide samples were processed using the powder metallurgy route. It was observed that the as-prepared undoped sample contains a pure β-Zn4Sb3 phase, whereas the doped samples consist of Ω-ZnSb as the major phase and β-Zn4Sb3 as the minor phase. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirms the stability of the β-Zn4Sb3 phase up to 600 K. X-ray diffraction data of the undoped and doped samples show that the nanocrystallinity of the as-prepared samples is retained after one thermal cycle. The thermal bandgap, thermopower and thermal conductivity are not affected by the thermal cycle for the doped samples. A maximum power factor of 0.6 mW m−1 K−2 was achieved in the Sn-doped sample (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05). This is enhanced to 0.72 mW m−1 K−2 after one thermal cycle at 650 K under Ar atmosphere and slightly decreases after the third thermal cycle. In the case of the Co-doped sample (Co0.05Zn3.95Sb3), the power factor increases from 0.4 mW m−1 K−2 to 0.7 mW m−1 K−2 after the third thermal cycle. A figure of merit of ~0.3 is achieved at 573 K in the Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05 sample. The results from the nanoindentation experiment show that Youngs modulus of the Sn-doped sample (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05) after the thermal cycle is enhanced (96 GPa) compared to the as-prepared sample (~76 GPa). These important findings on the thermal stability of the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Sn-doped samples (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05) confirm that Sn-doped zinc antimonide samples can be used as efficient thermoelectric materials for device applications.
Keywords Seebsys
Remark Link
ID=416

The effect of Cu2O nanoparticle dispersion on the thermoelectric properties of n-type skutterudites

Authors M Battabyal, B Priyadarshini, D Sivaprahasam, N S Karthiselva, R Gopalan
Source
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 48, Issue: 45 Publisher: IOP Publishing Ltd, Time of Publication: 2015-11
Abstract We report the thermoelectric properties of Ba0.4Co4Sb12 and Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb12 skutterudites dispersed with Cu2O nanoparticles. The samples were synthesized by ball milling and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Dispersion of Cu2O is found to significantly influence the electrical resistivity and thermopower at high temperatures with a more pronounced effect on the electrical resistivity due to the energy filtering effect at the interface between Cu2O nanoparticles and a Ba0.4Co4Sb12 and Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb12 matrix. At 573 K, the electrical resistivity of Ba0.4Co4Sb12 decreases from 5.01  ×  10−5 Ohmm to 2.98  ×  10−5 Ohmm upon dispersion of Cu2O. The dispersion of Cu2O reduces the thermal conductivity of the samples from 300 K and above by increasing the phonon scattering. The lowest observed thermal conductivity at 573 K is found to be 2.001 W mK−1 in Cu2O dispersed Ba0.4Co4Sb12 while it is 2.91 W mK−1 in the Ba0.4Co4Sb12 sample without Cu2O dispersion. Hence Cu2O dispersion plays a significant role in the thermoelectric properties and a maximum figure of merit (ZT ) ~ 0.92 is achieved in Cu2O dispersed Ba0.4Co4Sb12 at 573 K which is more than 200% compared to the pure Ba0.4Co4Sb12 sample. The results from nanoindentation experiments show that the Cu2O dispersed sample (Cu2O  +  Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb11.6) has a higher reduced Youngs modulus (~139 GPa) than the pure Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb11.6 sample (~128 GPa).
Keywords Seebsys
Remark Link
ID=410

Relating defect chemistry and electronic transport in the double perovskite Ba1−xGd0.8La0.2+xCo2O6−δ (BGLC)

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume: 5, Pages: 15743-15751
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Rare earth double perovskites comprise a class of functional oxides with interesting physiochemical properties both for low- and high-temperature applications. However, little can be found relating electrical properties with equilibrium thermodynamics of non-stoichiometry and defects. In the present work, a comprehensive and generally applicable defect chemical model is developed to form the link between the defect chemistry and electronic structure of partially substituted BGLC (Ba1−xGd0.8La0.2+xCo2O6−δ, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5). The equilibrium oxygen content of 4 different compositions is determined as a function of pO2 and temperature by thermogravimetric analysis, and combined with defect chemical modelling to obtain defect concentrations and thermodynamic parameters. Oxidation enthalpies determined by TG-DSC become increasingly exothermic (−50 to −120 kJ mol−1) with increased temperature and oxygen non-stoichiometry for all compositions, in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameters obtained from the defect chemical model. All compositions display high electrical conductivities (500 to 1000 S cm−1) with shallow pO2-dependencies and small and positive Seebeck coefficients (3 to 15 μV K−1), indicating high degree of degeneracy of the electronic charge carriers. The complex electrical properties of BGLC at elevated temperatures is rationalized by a two-band conduction model where highly mobile p-type charge carriers are transported within the valence band, whereas less mobile “n-type” charge carriers are located in narrow Co 3d band.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C7TA02659E
Link
ID=352

Direct conversion of methane to aromatics in a catalytic co-ionic membrane reactor

Authors
Source
Science
Volume: 353, Issue: 6299, Pages: 563-566
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ISBN: Print ISSN:0036-8075 Online ISSN:1095-9203, Time of Publication: 2016-08
Abstract Nonoxidative methane dehydroaromatization (MDA: 6CH4 ↔ C6H6 + 9H2) using shape-selective Mo/zeolite catalysts is a key technology for exploitation of stranded natural gas reserves by direct conversion into transportable liquids. However, this reaction faces two major issues: The one-pass conversion is limited by thermodynamics, and the catalyst deactivates quickly through kinetically favored formation of coke. We show that integration of an electrochemical BaZrO3-based membrane exhibiting both proton and oxide ion conductivity into an MDA reactor gives rise to high aromatic yields and improved catalyst stability. These effects originate from the simultaneous extraction of hydrogen and distributed injection of oxide ions along the reactor length. Further, we demonstrate that the electrochemical co-ionic membrane reactor enables high carbon efficiencies (up to 80%) that improve the technoeconomic process viability. Methane gas is expensive to ship. It is usually converted into carbon monoxide and hydrogen and then liquefied. This is economically feasible only on very large scales. Hence, methane produced in small amounts at remote locations is either burned or not extracted. A promising alternative is conversion to benzene and hydrogen with molybdenumzeolite catalysts. Unfortunately, these catalysts deactivate because of carbon buildup; plus, hydrogen has to be removed to drive the reaction forward. Morejudo et al. address both of these problems with a solid-state BaZrO3 membrane reactor that electrochemically removes hydrogen and supplies oxygen to suppress carbon buildup.
Keywords CMR, MDA, catalytic membrane reactor, ZSM-5, MCM-22, FBR, FBR-PolyM, Pd-CMR, Co-ionic CMR, FT, ProboStat CMR base unit (NORECS)
Remark http://science.sciencemag.org/highwire/filestream/682540/field_highwire_adjunct_files/0/Morejudo.SM.pdf
BaZrO3
BaZrO3
Link
ID=331

The effect of Cu2O nanoparticle dispersion on the thermoelectric properties of n-type skutterudites

Authors M Battabyal, B Priyadarshini, D Sivaprahasam, N S Karthiselva and R Gopalan
Source
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 48, Issue: 45 Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract We report the thermoelectric properties of Ba0.4Co4Sb12 and Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb12 skutterudites dispersed with Cu2O nanoparticles. The samples were synthesized by ball milling and consolidated by spark plasma sintering. Dispersion of Cu2O is found to significantly influence the electrical resistivity and thermopower at high temperatures with a more pronounced effect on the electrical resistivity due to the energy filtering effect at the interface between Cu2O nanoparticles and a Ba0.4Co4Sb12 and Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb12 matrix. At 573 K, the electrical resistivity of Ba0.4Co4Sb12 decreases from 5.01  ×  10−5 Ωm to 2.98  ×  10−5 Ωm upon dispersion of Cu2O. The dispersion of Cu2O reduces the thermal conductivity of the samples from 300 K and above by increasing the phonon scattering. The lowest observed thermal conductivity at 573 K is found to be 2.001 W mK−1 in Cu2O dispersed Ba0.4Co4Sb12 while it is 2.91 W mK−1 in the Ba0.4Co4Sb12 sample without Cu2O dispersion. Hence Cu2O dispersion plays a significant role in the thermoelectric properties and a maximum figure of merit (ZT ) ~ 0.92 is achieved in Cu2O dispersed Ba0.4Co4Sb12 at 573 K which is more than 200% compared to the pure Ba0.4Co4Sb12 sample. The results from nanoindentation experiments show that the Cu2O dispersed sample (Cu2O  +  Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb11.6) has a higher reduced Youngs modulus (~139 GPa) than the pure Sn0.4Ba0.4Co4Sb11.6 sample (~128 GPa).
Remark Link
ID=319

Tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47−δ: optimization strategies and transport properties of a new n-type thermoelectric oxide

Authors Christophe P. Heinrich, Matthias Schrade, Giacomo Cerretti, Ingo Lieberwirth, Patrick Leidich, Andreas Schmitz, Harald Fjeld, Eckhard Mueller, Terje G. Finstad, Truls Norby and Wolfgang Tremel
Source
Materials Horizons
Issue: 5, Pages: 519-527
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Engineering of nanoscaled structures may help controlling the electrical and thermal transport in solids, in particular for thermoelectric applications that require the combination of low thermal conductivity and low electrical resistivity. The tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47 (TTB) allow a continuous variation of the charge carrier concentration while fulfilling at the same time the concept of a “phonon-glass electron-crystal” through a layered nanostructure defined by intrinsic crystallographic shear planes. The thermoelectric properties of the tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47−δ (0 < x < 2) were studied in the temperature range from 373 to 973 K. Structural defects and the thermal stability under various oxygen partial pressure pO2 were investigated by means of thermogravimetry, HR-TEM, and XRD. Nb8W9O47−δ was found stable at 973 K and a pO2 of ≈10−15 atm. The oxygen nonstoichiometry δ can reach up to 0.3, depending on the applied atmosphere. By increasing the substitution level x, the electrical resistivity ρ and the Seebeck coefficient S decreased. For x = 2, ρ reached 20 mΩ cm at 973 K, combined with a Seebeck coefficient of approximately −120 μV K−1. The thermal conductivity was low for all samples, ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 W K−1 m−1, attributed to the complex crystal structure. The best thermoelectric figure of merit zT of the investigated samples was 0.043, obtained for x = 2 at 973 K, but it is expected to increase significantly upon a further increase of x. The control of the oxygen non-stoichiometry δ opens a second independent optimization strategy for tetragonal tungsten bronzes.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5MH00033E
Link
ID=304

FD Electrolysis: Co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 in full-ceramic symmetrical SOECs: A strategy for avoiding the use of Hydrogen as a safe gas

Authors
Source
Faraday Discussions
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The use of cermets as fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrolysis cells requires permanent circulation of reducing gas, e.g. H2 or CO, so called safe gas, in order to avoid oxidation of the metallic phase. Replacing metallic based electrodes by pure oxides is therefore proposed as an advantage for the industrial application of solid oxide electrolyzers. In this work, full-ceramic symmetrical solid oxide electrolysis cells have been investigated for steam/CO2 co-electrolysis. Electrolyte supported cells with La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ reversible electrodes have been fabricated and tested in co-electrolysis mode using different fuel compositions, from pure H2O to pure CO2, at temperatures of 850°C – 900°C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic measurements have been carried out for the mechanistic understanding of the symmetrical cells performance. The content of H2 and CO in the product gas has been measured by in-line gas micro-chromatography. The effect of employing H2 as a safe gas has been also investigated. Maximum density currents of 750 mA/cm2 and 620 mA/cm2 have been applied at 1.7 V for pure H2O and for H2O:CO2 ratios of 1:1, respectively. Remarkable results were obtained for hydrogen-free fuel compositions, which confirmed the interest of using ceramic oxides as a fuel electrode candidate to reduce or completely avoid the use of safe gas in operation minimizing the contribution of the reverse water shift reaction (RWSR) in the process. H2:CO ratios close to two were obtained for hydrogen-free tests fulfilling the basic requirements for synthetic fuel production. An important increase of the operation voltage was detected under continuous operation leading to a dramatic failure by delamination of the oxygen electrode.
Remark Accepted Manuscript, DOI: 10.1039/C5FD00018A
Link
ID=303

Doping strategies for increased oxygen permeability of CaTiO3 based membranes

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus, Wen Xing, Martin F. Sunding, Sidsel M. Hanetho, Paul Inge Dahl, Yngve Larring, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 482, Pages: 137–143
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements are performed on dense samples of CaTi0.85Fe0.15O3−δ, CaTi0.75Fe0.15Mg0.05O3−δ and CaTi0.75Fe0.15Mn0.10O3−δ in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to assess Mg and Mn as dopants for improving the O2 permeability of CaTi1−xFexO3−δ based oxygen separation membranes. The oxygen permeation measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1000 °C with feed side oxygen partial pressures between 0.01 and 1 bar. The O2 permeability was experimentally found to be highest for the Mn doped sample over the whole temperature range, reaching 4.2×10−3 ml min−1 cm−1 at 900 °C and 0.21 bar O2 in the feed which corresponds to a 40% increase over the Fe-doped sample and similar to reported values for x=0.2. While the O2 permeability of the Mg doped sample was also higher than the Fe-doped sample, it approached that of the Fe-doped sample above 900 °C. According to the DFT calculations, Mn introduces electronic states within the band gap and will predominately exist in the effectively negative charge state, as indicated by XPS measurements. Mn may therefore improve the ionic and electronic conductivity of CTF based membranes. The results are discussed in terms of the limiting species for ambipolar transport and O2 permeability, i.e., oxygen vacancies and electronic charge carriers.
Keywords Dense ceramic oxygen membrane; Ambipolar transport; Mixed ionic-electronic conduction; CaTiO3; Calcium titanate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.02.036
Link
ID=300

Electrical conductivity and thermopower of (1 − x) BiFeO3 – xBi0.5K0.5TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2) ceramics near the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition

Authors E. T. Wefring, M.-A. Einarsrud and T. Grande
Source
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume: 17, Issue: 14, Pages: 9420-9428
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Ferroelectric BiFeO3 has attractive properties such as high strain and polarization, but a wide range of applications of bulk BiFeO3 are hindered due to high leakage currents and a high coercive electric field. Here, we report on the thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and thermopower of BiFeO3 substituted with 10 and 20 mol% Bi0.5K0.5TiO3. A change from p-type to n-type conductivity in these semi-conducting materials was demonstrated by the change in the sign of the Seebeck coefficient and the change in the slope of the isothermal conductivity versus partial pressure of O. A minimum in the isothermal conductivity was observed at [similar]10−2 bar O2 partial pressure for both solid solutions. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the partial pressure of O2 was rationalized by a point defect model describing qualitatively the conductivity involving oxidation/reduction of Fe3+, the dominating oxidation state of Fe in stoichiometric BiFeO3. The ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition of 80 and 90 mol% BiFeO3 was observed at 648 ± 15 and 723 ± 15 °C respectively by differential thermal analysis and confirmed by dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature powder X-ray diffraction.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00266D
Link
ID=297

Solid oxide fuel cells with (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-δ electrolyte film deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, His-Chuan Lu, Yung-Fu Hsu, Yi-Xuan Hu
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 281, Pages: 258–264
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing a high quality La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) film deposited on anode supported substrate using RF magnetron sputtering are successfully prepared. The anode substrate is composed of two functional NiO/Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) composite layers with ratios of 60/40 wt% and 50/50 wt% and a current collector layer of pure NiO. The as-deposited LSGM film appears to be amorphous in nature. After post-annealing at 1000 °C, a uniform and dense polycrystalline film with a composition of La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.85Mg0.15O3-δ and a thickness of 3.8 μm is obtained, which was well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite LSGM/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) layer, with a ratio of 30/70 wt%, is used as the cathode. The SOFC prepared reveals a good mechanical integrity with no sign of cracking, delamination, or discontinuity among the interfaces. The total cell resistance of a single cell with LSGM electrolyte film declines from 0.60 to 0.10 Ω cm2 as the temperature escalates from 600 to 800 °C and the open circuit voltage (OCV) ranges from 0.85 to 0.95 V. The maximum power density (MPD) of the single cell is reported as 0.65, 1.02, 1.30, 1.42, and 1.38 W cm−2 at 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 °C, respectively. The good cell performance leads to the conclusion that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible deposition method for preparing good quality LSGM films in SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Sputtering; Electrolyte; Doped lanthanum gallate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.185
Link
ID=294

Hydrogen separation membranes based on dense ceramic composites in the La27W5O55.5–LaCrO3 system

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus, Wen Xing, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Christelle Denonville, Partow P. Henriksen, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 479, Pages: 39–45
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Some compositions of ceramic hydrogen permeable membranes are promising for integration in high temperature processes such as steam methane reforming due to their high chemical stability in large chemical gradients and CO2 containing atmospheres. In the present work, we investigate the hydrogen permeability of densely sintered ceramic composites (cercer) of two mixed ionic-electronic conductors: La27W3.5Mo1.5O55.5−δ (LWM) containing 30, 40 and 50 wt% La0.87Sr0.13CrO3−δ (LSC). Hydrogen permeation was characterized as a function of temperature, feed side hydrogen partial pressure (0.1–0.9 bar) with wet and dry sweep gas. In order to assess potentially limiting surface kinetics, measurements were also carried out after applying a catalytic Pt-coating to the feed and sweep side surfaces. The apparent hydrogen permeability, with contribution from both H2 permeation and water splitting on the sweep side, was highest for LWM70-LSC30 with both wet and dry sweep gas. The Pt-coating further enhances the apparent H2 permeability, particularly at lower temperatures. The apparent H2 permeability at 700 °C in wet 50% H2 was 1.1×10−3 mL min−1 cm−1 with wet sweep gas, which is higher than for the pure LWM material. The present work demonstrates that designing dual-phase ceramic composites of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is a promising strategy for enhancing the ambipolar conductivity and gas permeability of dense ceramic membranes.
Keywords Hydrogen separation; Dense ceramic membrane; Ceramic&#8211;ceramic composite; Lanthanum tungstate; Lanthanum chromite
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.01.027
Link
ID=208

Effects of Nb5+, Mo6+, and W6+ dopants on the germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for use in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Wan-Ju Lin
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 38, Issue: 27, Pages: 12015–12023
Time of Publication: 2013-09
Abstract Rare information is available in the literature on the cell performance of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using apatites known for their good electrical conductivity as electrolyte materials. In this study, La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5, La9.5Ge5.5Mo0.5O26.75, and La9.5Ge5.5W0.5O26.75 ceramics were prepared and characterized. The results indicated that the La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 and La9.5Ge5.5W0.5O26.75 ceramics reported hexagonal phase, while the La9.5Ge5.5Mo0.5O26.75 ceramic demonstrated triclinic symmetry. Among the apatities evaluated, La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 sintered at 1450 °C showed the best conduction with an electrical conductivity value of 0.045 S/cm at 800 °C. Button cells of NiO–SDC/La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5/LSCF–SDC were built and revealed good structural integrity. The total ohmic resistance (R0) and interfacial polarization resistance (RP) of the cell read 0.428 and 0.174 Ω cm2 and 0.871 and 1.164 Ω cm2, respectively at 950 and 800 °C. The maximum power densities (MPD) of the single cell at 950 and 800 °C were respectively 0.363 and 0.095 W cm−2. Without optimizing the anode and cathode as well as hermetic sealing of the cell against the gas, the study found the performance of the single cell with the pure La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 as its electrolyte material superior to those of the SOFC cells with a YSZ electrolyte of comparable thickness shown in the literature.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Apatite; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark Link
ID=153

Impact of Parylene-A Encapsulation on ZnO Nanobridge Sensors and Sensitivity Enhancement via Continuous Ultraviolet Illumination

Authors C.-C. Huang, A.D. Mason, J.F. Conley, C. Heist, M.T. Koesdjojo, V.T. Remcho and T. Afentakis
Source
Journal of Electronic Materials
Volume: 41, Issue: 5, Pages: 873-880
Time of Publication: 2012-05
Abstract The impact of parylene-A encapsulation and the effect of continuous ultraviolet (UV) exposure on ZnO nanobridge sensor response are investigated. ZnO nanowire (NW) devices are fabricated using a novel method that involves selective growth of ZnO nanobridges between lithographically defined pads of carbonized photoresist (C-PR). We find that a thin coating of parylene-A effectively attenuates the response of NW devices to O2, H2O vapor, and UV illumination. The accessibility of the amine group on parylene-A for chemical functionalization is verified by transforming the amine groups on the surface of the parylene-A coating into aromatic imine groups, followed by UV–Vis absorption. Our results suggest that, in addition to modulating environmental sensitivity and providing protection of the ZnO NWs for liquid- and vapor-phase sensing, the parylene-A encapsulation may also serve as an activation layer for further specific functionalization targeting selective sensing. We also found that the sensitivity and response time of ZnO nanobridge devices to O2 are dramatically improved by continuously exposing the nanobridge devices to UV illumination. Finally, we show that the C-PR directed growth method can also be used to isolate free-standing NW carpet.
Keywords ZnO &#8211; nanowire &#8211; parylene &#8211; CVD &#8211; nanobridge &#8211; sensor &#8211; functionalization &#8211; directed integration
Remark Link
norecs.com

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