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Interdigitated sensors testbed

ProboStat sample holder is perfect for testing, developing and bench-marking sensors based on interdigitated electrodes when extreme conditions are necessary.

The sample holder volume can be temperature and atmosphere controlled, from below freezing up to 1600 ºC. The sample holder has gas inlets and outlets and tolerates any atmosphere from vacuum to high pressure, from inert to reducing or oxidizing. Additional sensors also fit in, and can be used for validation or verification, for example pt100 platinum thermistors, S or K thermocouples. The sample holder can be equipped with an optical port. Sample holder can also be used with fluids.

Any type of electrical measurement instruments can be connected to the ProboStat. The sample holder offers 10^15 Ohm isolation between measurement/sensor leads (value is subject to test conditions). The setup is suitable for measurements of voltage, current, resistance and conductance from very low to very high, impedance spectroscopy, impedance, capacitance. 16 available electrode contacts. Also options for high voltage (10 kV) and high current (15 A)

ProboStat has wide user-base so supporting ecosystem around the sample holder is already wide. One can find wide range of customizations, literature & publications, application notes, instrumentation, software, gas mixers and sensors that all works with ProboStat.

By increasing the total length of the uniform gap between the electrodes, the magnitude of the measured phenomena is increased while many of the sources for error remain the same. Interdigitated electrode configuration offers easy way to measure weak phenomena. The interdigitated electrode chips are mass produced with well defined dimensions, from wide range of materials. The chips are ready for users to deposit their material on top with a method of their choice, such as vapor deposition or screen printing.

The setup is suitable for single electrodes (SE), microelectrode arrays (MEA), interdigitated electrodes (IDE), interdigitated array microelectrodes (IDA), interdigitated ring array (IDRA), and on-demand and customized types.

In addition to the setup, NORECS can sell the sensor chips, for example silver, gold or platinum electrodes on a ceramic, glass or plastic chip.

 

These articles refer to ProboStat or other NORECS products, filtered with keywords: 'thin film, IDE, Microelectrodes'  
ID=606

Reversible fuel electrode supported solid oxide cells fabricated by aqueous multilayered tape casting

Authors L. Bernadet, M. Morales, X. G. Capdevila, F. Ramos, M. C. Monterde, J. A. Calero, A. Morata, M. Torrell and A. Tarancón
Source
J. Phys. Energy
Volume: 3, Issue: 2, Pages: 024002
Time of Publication: 2021
Abstract Fuel electrode supported solid oxide cells (SOCs) have been developed on an industrial scale using the aqueous tape-casting technique. The NiO–yttria-stabilized zirconia Y2O3–ZrO2 (YSZ) fuel electrode and YSZ electrolyte have been manufactured by multilayer co-laminated tape casting. Details of the tape-casting slurry formulations are described and discussed. Two types of cells were fabricated with different microstructures of the NiO–YSZ support discussed. Good electrochemical performance and stability in SOFC mode at 750 °C and 0.7 V for both button cells reaching around >0.75 W cm−2 and with no measurable degradation after >700 h were observed. The selected cell was scaled up to large-area cells (36 cm2 of the active area) and electrochemically tested at 750 °C in a single repetition unit (SRU) in SOFC (Solid Oxide Fuel Cell), SOEC (Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell) and co-SOEC (Solid Oxide co-Electrolysis Cell) mode, and in a short-stack of two SRUs in SOFC mode. A current up to 17 A was obtained at 1.4 V (0.7 V cell−1) with the short-stack configuration in SOFC mode, corresponding to ∼0.5 A cm−2 and 24 W. The performances of the aqueous-based SOC cells can be considered highly remarkable, thus supporting the success in scaling the fabrication of SOC stacks using more environmentally friendly processes than conventional ones.
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ID=605

Towards efficient oxygen separation from air: Influence of the mean rare-earth radius on thermodynamics and kinetics of reactivity with oxygen in hexagonal Y1-xRxMnO3+δ

Authors Kacper Cichy, Konrad Åšwierczek, Katarzyna Jarosz, Alicja Klimkowicz, Mateusz Marzec, Marta Gajewska, Bogdan Dabrowski
Source
Acta Materialia
Volume: 205, Pages: 116544
Time of Publication: 2021
Abstract It is documented that the mean radius of rare-earth cations occupying Y1-xRx sublattice in Y1-xRxMnO3+δ hexagonal oxides plays a decisive role in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics of reactivity of the materials with oxygen, and consequently, influences strongly the oxygen storage performance in thermal swing processes conducted in oxygen and air. Y1-xRxMnO3+δ samples with designed being close to the critical one, at the border of stability between hexagonal- and perovskite-type phases, can reversibly incorporate/release significant amounts of oxygen in pure O2 or air atmospheres, at the moderate temperatures on the order of 200–300¯°C. Characteristic temperatures of oxidation and reduction are dependent on , therefore, it is possible to adjust conditions of the temperature swing operation by the chemical doping in Y1-xRxMnO3+δ with larger rare-earth elements. Crucial from a practical point of view, an increase of the oxidation temperature in such compounds greatly enhances the speed of the oxidation process (20¯°C increase can reduce half-time of oxidation twice), which is found to be the limiting factor concerning the performance. Based on the comprehensive studies of the physicochemical properties of Y1-xRxMnO3+δ, the optimized Y0.95Pr0.05MnO3+δ composition is proposed, doped only with a small amount of more expensive praseodymium. The material exhibits excellent oxygen storage-related properties and is able for the effective production of oxygen in air by the thermal swing process, utilizing medium-/low-temperature industrial waste heat.
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ID=604

Tuning the RWGS Reaction via EPOC and In Situ Electro-oxidation of Cobalt Nanoparticles

Authors Dimitrios Zagoraios Dimitrios Zagoraios Department of Chemical Engineering, University oDimitrios Zagoraios, Sotirios Tsatsos, Stella Kennou, Constantinos G. Vayenas, Georgios Kyriakou, and Alexandros Katsaounis
Source
ACS Catal.
Volume: 10, Issue: 24, Pages: 14916–14927
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract The electrochemical promotion of catalytic activity by non-noble transition metals is rarely reported in the literature. Here, Co nanoparticles were utilized for the electrochemical activation of CO2 hydrogenation under atmospheric pressure conditions. A range of transient kinetic experiments in conjunction with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and imaging techniques were employed to correlate the observed catalytic activity with the electronic and morphological characteristics of the cobalt catalyst surface. Our results show that migrating ions from the solid electrolyte to the catalyst surface has a dual effect, which has an impact on the observed catalytic behavior. First, they lead to an electrochemically formed double layer on the catalyst surface, which effectively modifies the catalyst work function and consequently alters the observed catalytic rate. Second, they have a profound effect on the oxidation state of cobalt and therefore on the structure of the cobalt oxide particles formed. The presence of Co oxide phases upon anodic polarization shows up to a 5-fold increase in the catalytic rate of the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction. The enhancement of the catalytic activity observed in this work, with a relatively inexpensive cobalt oxide film, is comparable to that obtained with noble metal catalysts in classical EPOC studies. The present study also demonstrates that the formation of different oxide phases can be controlled accurately by electrochemical means and used to tune the catalytic activity and selectivity of cobalt. The reported results could guide the design and operation of more selective and active catalytic processes for the RWGS reaction.
Keywords electrochemical promotion, cobalt oxide, CO2 hydrogenation, XPS, RWGS
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ID=603

From insulator to oxide-ion conductor by a synergistic effect from defect chemistry and microstructure: acceptor-doped Bi-excess sodium bismuth titanate Na0.5Bi0.51TiO3.015

Authors Fan Yang, Julian S. Dean, Qiaodan Hu, Patrick Wu, Emilio Pradal-Velázquez, Linhao Li and Derek C. Sinclair
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue: 47 Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract The influence of Ti-site acceptor-doping (Mg2+, Zn2+, Sc3+, Ga3+ and Al3+) on the electrical conductivity and conduction mechanism of a nominally Bi-excess sodium bismuth titanate perovskite, Na0.5Bi0.51TiO3.015 (NB0.51T), is reported. Low levels of acceptor-type dopants can introduce appreciable levels of oxide-ion conductivity into NB0.51T, i.e., 0.5% Mg-doping for Ti4+ can enhance the bulk conductivity of NB0.51T by more than 3 orders of magnitude with the oxide-ion transport number going from <0.1 for NB0.51T to >0.9 at 600 °C. The intriguing electrical behaviour in acceptor-doped NB0.51T dielectrics is a synergistic effect based on the defect chemistry and ceramic microstructure in these materials. NB0.51T ceramics with extremely low levels of doping show an inhomogeneous microstructure with randomly distributed large grains embedded in a small grained matrix. This can be considered as a two-phase composite with large grains as a conductive phase and small grains as an insulating phase based on an empirical conductivity – grain size relationship. Variation in the fraction of the conductive, large grained phase with increasing doping levels agrees with the oxide-ion transport number. This electrical two-phase model is supported by finite element modelling. This study reveals the significance of ceramic microstructure on the electrical conduction behaviour of these materials and can provide a guideline for selecting suitable doping strategies to meet the electrical property requirements of NBT-based ceramics for different applications.
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ID=601

NiO–ZnO based junction interface as high-temperature contact materials

Author Temesgen D.Desissa
Source
Ceramics International
Volume: 47, Issue: 6, Pages: 8053-8059
Time of Publication: 2021
Abstract Contact materials play a crucial role in an electronic device operating at moderate and elevated temperatures where chemical and thermal stability is of great importance. Oxide materials and their interfaces are potential candidates as high-temperature contact materials due to their high chemical and thermal stabilities. In this work, polycrystalline oxides of Ni0.98Li0.02O and Zn0.98Al0.02O were used to make junction interfaces, where the solid-state synthesis method was used to obtain the individual oxide materials. After assembly of the junction interfaces, properties such as electrical, chemical, and thermal stabilities of the interfaces were investigated. The electrical properties were assessed through current-voltage (I–V) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements, where the interface revealed a transition from electrically rectifying to slightly ohmic contact within a temperature range from 500–1000 °C. After annealing the junction interfaces at these elevated temperatures, no secondary phase was observed at the junction interface, i.e., the interfaces remain chemically stable. Moreover, the effect of isothermal annealing on the I–V characteristics curve of the junction showed an increased reverse current output over long annealing time, attributed mainly to the increased effective contact area at the junction interface and cation inter-diffusion processes. Furthermore, an investigation of the cation inter-diffusion mechanism revealed mainly lattice diffusion of Zn2+ into Ni0.98Li0.02O, while Ni2+ diffusion into Zn0.98Al0.02O exhibited both lattice and grain-boundary diffusion mechanisms.
Keywords Interfaces; Thermal stability; Electrical properties; Diffusion
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ID=600

Processing Ceramic Proton Conductor Membranes for Use in Steam Electrolysis

Authors Kwati Leonard, Wendelin Deibert, Mariya E. Ivanova, Wilhelm A. Meulenberg, Tatsumi Ishihara and Hiroshige Matsumoto
Source
Membranes
Volume: 10, Issue: 11, Pages: 339
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Steam electrolysis constitutes a prospective technology for industrial-scale hydrogen production. The use of ceramic proton-conducting electrolytes is a beneficial option for lowering the operating temperature. However, a significant challenge with this type of electrolyte has been upscaling robust planar type devices. The fabrication of such multi-layered devices, usually via a tape casting process, requires careful control of individual layers’ shrinkages to prevent warping and cracks during sintering. The present work highlights the successful processing of 50 × 50 mm2 planar electrode-supported barium cerium yttrium zirconate BaZr0.44Ce0.36Y0.2O2.9 (BZCY(54)8/92) half cells via a sequential tape casting approach. The sintering parameters of the half-cells were analyzed and adjusted to obtain defect-free half-cells with diminished warping. Suitably dense and gas-tight electrolyte layers are obtained after co-sintering at 1350 °C for 5 h. We then assembled an electrolysis cell using Ba0.5La0.5CoO3−δ as the steam electrode, screen printed on the electrolyte layer, and fired at 800 °C. A typical Ba0.5La0.5CoO3−δ|BaZr0.44Ce0.36Y0.2O3−δ(15 μm)|NiO-SrZr0.5Ce0.4Y0.1O3−δ cell at 600 °C with 80% steam in the anode compartment reached reproducible terminal voltages of 1.4 V @ 500 mA·cm−2, achieving ~84% Faradaic efficiency. Besides electrochemical characterization, the morphology and microstructure of the layered half-cells were analyzed by a combination of high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Our results also provide a feasible approach for realizing the low-cost fabrication of large-sized protonic ceramic conducting electrolysis cells (PCECs).
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ID=596

Strategies to Mitigate the Degradation of Stainless-SteelInterconnects Used in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Author Claudia Gоbel
Source
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Interconnects are a vital part of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), where they electricallyconnect individual cells to form a fuel cell stack. They are a main contributor to theoverall stack cost and the limited life-time of fuel cells, and, therefore, improvementscarried out on the interconnect level could further the commercialization of SOFCs.The limited life-time of the interconnect is related to the material used today, ferriticstainless steels (FSS). FSS interconnects are more cost-effective than previously usedceramics, but they degrade under the conditions prevalent in an SOFC: high temperaturesbetween 600°C and 850°C, and a p(O2) gradient. Certain corrosion phenomena thatoccur, such as Cr evaporation and continuous oxide scale growth, negatively impact cellperformance due to cathode poisoning and increased electrical resistance, respectively.These phenomena have been found to be effectively mitigated by coatings, such as the(Co,Mn)3O4(MCO) coating, or reactive element coatings, such as Ce.The present thesis examines these coatings with regard to three aspects: (i) doesthe semi-conducting spinel coating affect the electrical resistance of the interconnectnegatively, or is its conductivity negligible in comparison to the continuously growingCr2O3scale below it; (ii) does the coating self-heal if it is cracked even at intermediatetemperatures, i.e. 650°C and 750°C, or do the cracks persist and increase Cr evaporation;and (iii) is the long-term stability of the state-of-the-art Ce/Co coating (10 nm Ce/640 nmCo) still effective after 35 000 h, or not. The second aspect is not only important tounderstand corrosion behavior, but it would also allow for large-scale roll-to-roll PVDcoating, which is significantly more cost-effective than batch coating.Another corrosion phenomenon that is elucidated within the scope of this work is thedual atmosphere effect. This effect leads to increased corrosion on the air-facing side ofthe interconnect if the FSS is exposed to a dual atmosphere, i.e. air on one side andhydrogen on the other side, compared to if the FSS is exposed to an air-only atmosphere.A new theory as to why the dual atmosphere effect occurs is proposed, and it is indirectlyverified by means of excluding all other possibilities. Factors that influence the dualatmosphere effect are discussed, and it is shown how the dual atmosphere effect could, inpart, be mitigated.
Keywords Solid Oxide Fuel Cell; Corrosion; Interconnect; Cr Evaporation; Area SpecificResistance; Deformation; Long-term; Dual Atmosphere; Hydrogen
Remark THESIS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
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ID=592

Dynamics of Hydroxyl Anions Promotes Lithium Ion Conduction in Antiperovskite Li2OHCl

Authors Fei Wang, Hayden A. Evans, Kwangnam Kim, Liang Yin, Yiliang Li, Ping-Chun Tsai, Jue Liu, Saul H. Lapidus, Craig M. Brown, Donald J. Siegel, and Yet-Ming Chiang
Source
Chem. Mater.
Volume: 32, Issue: 19, Pages: 8481–8491
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Li2OHCl is an exemplar of the antiperovskite family of ionic conductors, for which high ionic conductivities have been reported, but in which the atomic-level mechanism of ion migration is unclear. The stable phase is both crystallographically defective and disordered, having ∼1/3 of the Li sites vacant, while the presence of the OH– anion introduces the possibility of rotational disorder that may be coupled to cation migration. Here, complementary experimental and computational methods are applied to understand the relationship between the crystal chemistry and ionic conductivity in Li2OHCl, which undergoes an orthorhombic to cubic phase transition near 311 K (≈38 °C) and coincides with the more than a factor of 10 change in ionic conductivity (from 1.2 × 10–5mS/cm at 37 °C to 1.4 × 10–3 mS/cm at 39 °C). X-ray and neutron experiments conducted over the temperature range 20–200 °C, including diffraction, quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS), the maximum entropy method (MEM) analysis, and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations, together show conclusively that the high lithium ion conductivity of cubic Li2OHCl is correlated to “paddlewheel” rotation of the dynamic OH– anion. The present results suggest that in antiperovskites and derivative structures a high cation vacancy concentration combined with the presence of disordered molecular anions can lead to high cation mobility.
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ID=589

Ionic conductivity in LixTaOy thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

Authors Yang Hu, Ville Miikkulainen, Kenichiro Mizohata, Truls Norby, Ola Nilsen, Helmer Fjellvåg
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Volume: 361, Pages: 137019
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract The material system Li-Ta-O is a promising candidate for thin-film solid-state electrolytes in Li-ion batteries. In the present study, we have varied the Li content x in LixTaOy thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with the aim of improving the Li-ion conductivity. The amorphous films were grown at 225 °C on insulating sapphire and on conductive Ti substrates using tantalum ethoxide (Ta(OEt)5), lithium tert-butoxide (LiOtBu) and water as reactants. The film composition was determined by time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (TOF-ERDA), displaying an almost linear relationship between the pulsed and deposited Li content. The ionic conductivities were determined by in-plane and cross-plane AC measurements, exhibiting an Arrhenius-type behaviour and comparatively weak thickness-dependence. Increasing Li content x from 0.32 to 0.98 increases the film conductivity by two orders of magnitude while higher Li content x = 1.73 results in decreased conductivity. A room-temperature conductivity σRT of ~10−8 S cm−1 is obtained for a 169 nm thick Li0.98TaOy film. The evolution of conductivity and activation energy suggests a competing effect between the concentration and the mobility of mobile Li ions when more Li are incorporated. The compositional dependence of Li transport mechanism is discussed.
Keywords Atomic layer deposition; LixTaOy thin films; Solid-state electrolytes; TOF-ERDA; Ionic conductivity
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ID=587

Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Tysonite Ce0.95A0.05F2.95 (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba): Fast-Fluoride-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

Authors Kazuhiro Mori, Yoshiyuki Morita, Takashi Saito, Takashi Kamiyama, Toshiya Otomo, Takeshi Abe, and Toshiharu Fukunaga
Source
J. Phys. Chem. C
Volume: 124, Issue: 34, Pages: 18452–18461
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract All-solid-state fluoride shuttle batteries (FSBs) present endless possibilities for next-generation rechargeable batteries. However, no standard choice for solid electrolytes and electrodes in FSBs has been established to date. Additionally, details of how F ions travel through the working device are yet to be fully understood. Here, we studied the electrochemical properties of tysonite Ce0.95A0.05F2.95 (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) and Ce0.95Mg0.05F2.95 (actually, a composite of CeF3 and MgF2) solid electrolytes, and their crystal structures using neutron diffraction data. In particular, Ce0.95Ca0.05F2.95 exhibited the highest electrical conductivity and the shortest bond between F ions. Furthermore, F-vacancies introduced by the substitution of Ca2+ for Ce3+ were accommodated only at the F1 site. The bond valence sum (BVS) analysis results indicated that there was a significant difference in the BVS values of F ions: BVS(F1) = −0.92 on [F1] layers, and BVS(F2) = −1.13 and BVS(F3) = −1.07 on [M (=Ce0.95Ca0.05), F2, F3] layers, which were stacked alternately along the c-axis of the trigonal cell. The BVS(F2) value was relatively lower than the BVS(F1) and BVS(F3) ones, indicating that F2 is tightly bonded to M compared to that of F1 or F3. The findings suggested that F1–F1 and F1–F3 sublattices play a key role in the high mobility of the conducting F ions.
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ID=586

Synthesis, structure, magnetic behavior and dielectric relaxation of the LaxSr2-xFeхTi1-хO4 (х ​= ​0.5, 0.7) oxide ceramic

Authors Т.I. Chupakhina, N.V. Melnikova, N.I. Kadyrova, Yu.A. Deeva, А.A. Mirzorakhimov, T.P. Gavrilova, I.F. Gilmutdinov, R.M. Eremina
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 292, Pages: 121687
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract This study is devoted to the investigation of the high dielectric constant causes in complex oxides with a structure of the K2NiF4 type. А new thermobaric treated ceramics on the basis conjugate LaxSr2-xFeхTi1-хO4 (х ​= ​0.5, 0.7) solid solutions was synthesized and the study their structure, microstructure, magnetic and dielectric properties was performed. It is shown that antiferromagnetic interactions coexist with ferromagnetic, which become dominant towards to low temperatures; the appearance of two types of magnetic interactions may be related to the presence of magnetic ions of different valences. Different values of the dielectric constants ε are observed in wide region of frequencies 10–107 ​Hz. In obtained at ambient pressure LaxSr2-xFeхTi1-хO4 (х ​= ​0.5, 0.7) ceramics the highest permittivity ε value is only 30–50 in the frequency range from 1 ​kHz to 1 ​MHz. After the samples treatment at 1273 ​K and P ​= ​4 ​GPa during 5 ​min ε increases to 5–102–103 ​at 293 ​š and independent of frequency in the range (102–106) Hz. At the temperature increase the permittivity as well increases and the ε value becomes ~106 at, approximately, f ​= ​100 ​Hz and T ​= ​750 ​K. An obvious change of samples microstructure and polyhedra structure anisotropy in LaxSr2-xFeхTi1-хO4 (х ​= ​0.5, 0.7) was observed after the thermobaric treatment. Described in this article performed dielectric properties investigations indicate that possible reasons of the high-permittivity origin are specifics of layered structure, microstructure and charge polarization associated with it, Maxwell-Wagner polarization at the grain boundaries and inhomogeneities and small polaron hopping conduction mechanism.
Keywords Complex oxides; Synthesis; Ceramics; High pressure; Magnetization; Dielectric properties
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2020.121687
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ID=585

Structural and Electrochemical Properties of Tysonite Ce0.95A0.05F2.95 (A = Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba): Fast-Fluoride-Ion-Conducting Solid Electrolytes

Authors Kazuhiro Mori, Yoshiyuki Morita, Takashi Saito, Takashi Kamiyama, Toshiya Otomo, Takeshi Abe, and Toshiharu Fukunaga
Source
J. Phys. Chem. C
Volume: 124, Issue: 34, Pages: 18452–18461
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract All-solid-state fluoride shuttle batteries (FSBs) present endless possibilities for next-generation rechargeable batteries. However, no standard choice for solid electrolytes and electrodes in FSBs has been established to date. Additionally, details of how F ions travel through the working device are yet to be fully understood. Here, we studied the electrochemical properties of tysonite Ce0.95A0.05F2.95 (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba) and Ce0.95Mg0.05F2.95 (actually, a composite of CeF3 and MgF2) solid electrolytes, and their crystal structures using neutron diffraction data. In particular, Ce0.95Ca0.05F2.95 exhibited the highest electrical conductivity and the shortest bond between F ions. Furthermore, F-vacancies introduced by the substitution of Ca2+ for Ce3+ were accommodated only at the F1 site. The bond valence sum (BVS) analysis results indicated that there was a significant difference in the BVS values of F ions: BVS(F1) = −0.92 on [F1] layers, and BVS(F2) = −1.13 and BVS(F3) = −1.07 on [M (=Ce0.95Ca0.05), F2, F3] layers, which were stacked alternately along the c-axis of the trigonal cell. The BVS(F2) value was relatively lower than the BVS(F1) and BVS(F3) ones, indicating that F2 is tightly bonded to M compared to that of F1 or F3. The findings suggested that F1–F1 and F1–F3 sublattices play a key role in the high mobility of the conducting F ions.
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ID=584

Structural characterization and electrical/electrochemical studies of Nd1-xBaxCo1-y(Fe, Ti)y O3-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.3, y = 0, 0.2) materials as cathode for SOFCs application

Authors Paramananda Jena, Dinesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Patro, Raja Kishora Lenka, Akhilesh Kumar Singh
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 292, Pages: 121682
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Perovskite oxide powders of Nd1-xBaxCo1-y (Fe, Ti)y O3-δ (0 ≤ x ​≤ ​0.3, y ​= ​0, 0.2) were synthesized by combustion technique and investigated as cathode materials for SOFCs application. The Rietveld refinement of the XRD data confirms the formation of single phase orthorhombic perovskite structure of Pbnm space group within the compositions (0 ​≤ ​x ​≤ ​0.1, y ​= ​0, 0.2). The microstructural studies revealed the grains generated are irregular in shape and non uniform in size in the micrometer range. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of mixed valence states of Co3+/Co4+, Fe3+/Fe4+, Ti4+/Ti3+ and O-Lattice/O-Chemisorbed/O-physisorbed species. The measured average CTE values are varies from 18–25 ​× ​10−6 ​K−1 in the temperature range 200–900 ​°C for all the synthesized samples. The electrical conductivity values are found to be 252 Scm−1, 308 Scm−1, 157 Scm−1 at 700 ​°C for the compositions Nd0.9Ba0·1CoO3-δ (NBC 0.1), Nd0.9Ba0·1Co0·8Fe0·2O3-δ (NBCFO), Nd0.9Ba0·1Co0·8Ti0·2O3-δ (NBCTO), respectively. XRD analysis reveals no chemical reactivity for the compositions NBCFO, NBCTO with 20 ​mol% gadolinium doped ceria oxide (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ) electrolyte material after firing at 1200 ​°C for 8 ​h. The area specific resistances (ASR) were calculated for the symmetrical cells and are found to be 0.67 ​Ω ​cm2, 1.07 ​Ω ​cm2 at 850 ​°C for the NBCFO, NBCTO compositions, respectively. Among the compositions evaluated Nd0.9Ba0·1Co0·8Fe0·2O3-δ showed highest total electrical conductivity ~308 Scm−1 and lowest ASR value ~0.67 Ωcm2 compared to all other compositions. Hence the result suggests the synthesized Nd0.9Ba0·1Co0·8Fe0·2O3-δ composition could be a promising cathode material for SOFCs application.
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ID=583

Effect of the Complexing Agent in the Pechini Method on the Structural and Electrical Properties of an Ionic Conductor of Formula La1−xSrxAlO3−δ (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15)

Authors F. Hadji, F. Bouremmad, S. ShawutiM. A. Gulgun
Source
Advances in Renewable Hydrogen and Other Sustainable Energy Carriers
Pages: 387-393
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract The Ion conductors are used as electrolytes in high temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells SOFCs. The preparation route has an important role on their structural and electrical properties. In this study, we used a modified Pechini method to prepare an ionic conductor based on lanthanum aluminate doped with strontium La1−xSrxAlO3−δ (x = 0.0.05, 0.1, 0.15). The effect of two complexing agents on structural and electrical properties was studied, we used Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic EDTA, and tartaric acid TA as complexing agents. The perovskite phases were obtained at 900 °C and characterized by different techniques; SEM images show that grain size is in the nanometer range, XRD analysis shows that the compounds prepared by use of the two complexing agents crystallize in a perovskite structure with an orthorhombic system and an R3m space group, the doped phases prepared by EDTA have a secondary phase LaSrAl3O7 which is absent in the compounds prepared by tartaric acid. The determination of the ionic conductivity by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows clearly the effect of the complexing agent. Indeed we have found that the value of the ionic conductivity is higher for the phases produced by the Pichini method in the presence of tartaric acid as complexing agent.
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ID=580

Domain wall conductivity as the origin of enhanced domain wall dynamics in polycrystalline BiFeO3

Authors Maja Makarovic, Mustafa ÇaÄri Bayir, Hana Ursic, Andraz Bradesko, and Tadej Rojac
Source
Journal of Applied Physics
Volume: 128, Pages: 064104
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Despite their primary importance in modern nanoelectronics, conductive domain walls (DWs) can also have a marking effect on the macroscopic response of polycrystalline ferroelectrics. In particular, a large nonlinear piezoelectric response at sub-Hz driving-field frequencies has been previously observed in BiFeO3, which was linked to the conductive nature of the DWs but whose exact origin has never been explained. In this study, by carefully designing the local conductivity in BiFeO3 using chemical doping, we found that the low-frequency piezoelectric nonlinearity is only observed in the sample with a large fraction of conductive DWs. Supported by nonlinear Maxwell–Wagner modeling, we propose that this large response originates from DW displacements inside a specific set of grains or grain clusters in which the internal electric fields are enhanced due to M-W effects. We thus show that these effects likely arise due to the pronounced local anisotropy in the electrical conductivity, varying from grain to grain, whose origin lies in the conductive DWs themselves. The results demonstrate the possibility of controlling the global nonlinear properties of polycrystalline ferroelectrics by engineering local properties.
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ID=579

Thermal, optical and electrical properties of MnO2-doped mixed sodium potassium phosphate glasses

Authors M. Jerroudi, L. Bih, S. Yousfi, L. Bejjit, M. Haddad, B. Manoun & P. Lazor
Source
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Glasses in the system (1 − x)(0.5NaPO3–0.5KPO3)–xMnO2, with 0 ≤ x ≤ 50 mol%, have been prepared using a melt-quench route. The glasses exhibit a yellow to dark color with the increase in manganese content owing to the presence of Mn2+ and Mn3+ ions in the network. The amorphous state of the glasses is evidenced by the X-ray diffraction. In order to get an insight into the physical and structural aspects of these vitreous materials, we have determined some of their parameters such as density, molar volume and glass transition temperature. From differential thermal analysis scan on heating, we evaluated the glass transition temperature (Tg) of each glass, which corresponds to the phase transition temperature from solid to viscous liquid. The density (ρ) as a structural index is found to increase while the corresponding molar volume decreases with MnO2 content. The structural approach of the studied glasses is evaluated by infrared (IR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. IR technique allowed us to identify the coexisting bond vibration modes in the glass network, and it has shown that many structural phosphates units coexist, mainly pyrophosphate and metaphosphate structural groups. EPR experiments have shown the presence of Mn2+ centers in the glasses. The UV–Visible absorption is utilized to estimate the values of the optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach energy (ΔE). The optical band gap energy is determined from both the absorption spectrum fitting (ASF) and Tauc’s methods. These optical parameters are composition dependence. The dc conductivity of the glasses is determined in the temperature range from 303 to 473 K. It decreases with increasing manganese content. It is thermally activated and followed an Arrhenius behavior. The crystallization of glasses is realized by submitting them to heat treatments, and the crystallized phases are identified by XRD analysis. The crystallization kinetic was studied under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy (Ec) and the Avrami parameter (n) were determined.
Remark Link
ID=578

In-situ Ni exsolution from NiTiO3 as potential anode for solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Lucía M.Toscani, Florencia Volpe Giangiordano, Nora Nichio, Francisco Pompeo, Susana A. Larrondo
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 45, Issue: 43 Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Sample NiTiO3 (NTO) is prepared by the molten salts synthesis route as a potential anode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. An additional sample impregnated with 5 mol%Ni (N-NTO) is also presented. Structural characterization reveal a pure NiTiO3 phase upon calcination at 850 °C and 1000 °C. Redox characterization by temperature programmed reduction tests indicate the transition from NiTiO3 to Ni/TiO2 at ca. 700 °C. Ni nanoparticles (ca. 26 nm) are exsolved in-situ from the structure after a reducing treatment at 850 °C. Catalytic activity tests for partial oxidation of methane performed in a fixed bed reactor reveal excellent values of activity and selectivity due to the highly dispersed Ni nanoparticles in the support surface. Time-on-stream behavior during 100 h operation in reaction conditions for sample N-NTO yield a stable CH4 conversion. Electrolyte supported symmetrical cells are prepared with both materials achieving excellent polarization resistance of 0.023 Ω cm2 in 7%H2/N2 atmosphere at 750 °C with sample N-NTO. The maximum power density achieved is of 273 mW cm−2 at 800 °C with a commercial Pt ink used as a reference cathode, indicating further improvement of the system can be achieved and positioning the N-NTO material as a promising SOFC anode material.
Remark Link
ID=577

Support effects on catalysis of low temperature methane steam reforming

Authors Maki Torimoto, Shuhei Ogo, Yudai Hisai, Naoya Nakano, Ayako Takahashi, Quanbao Ma, Jeong Gil Seo, Hideaki Tsuneki, Truls Norby and Yasushi Sekine
Source
RSC Adv.
Volume: 10, Pages: 26418-26424
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Low temperature (<500 K) methane steam reforming in an electric field was investigated over various catalysts. To elucidate the factors governing catalytic activity, activity tests and various characterization methods were conducted over various oxides including CeO2, Nb2O5, and Ta2O5 as supports. Activities of Pd catalysts loaded on these oxides showed the order of CeO2 > Nb2O5 > Ta2O5. Surface proton conductivity has a key role for the activation of methane in an electric field. Proton hopping ability on the oxide surface was estimated using electrochemical impedance measurements. Proton transport ability on the oxide surface at 473 K was in the order of CeO2 > Nb2O5 > Ta2O5. The OH group amounts on the oxide surface were evaluated by measuring pyridine adsorption with and without H2O pretreatment. Results indicate that the surface OH group concentrations on the oxide surface were in the order of CeO2 > Nb2O5 > Ta2O5. These results demonstrate that the surface concentrations of OH groups are related to the proton hopping ability on the oxide surface. The concentrations reflect the catalytic activity of low-temperature methane steam reforming in the electric field.
Remark Link
ID=568

Studying the Effects of Siloxanes on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Performance

Authors Zivak, Milica
Source
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are a promising technology for converting landfill gas into electricity, simultaneously providing a renewable source of energy. However, the contaminants present in landfill gas pose an obstacle to using it for energy generation. The research objective was to examine the effect siloxanes in landfill gas have on the performance of Ni-YSZ/Hionic™/LSM SOFCs, particularly through silica deposition on the Ni-YSZ anode. This was accomplished with voltammetric experiments using the ProboStat™ and anode surface analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). To establish whether siloxanes can be detrimental to SOFC operation, hydrogen spiked with varying concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), a representative siloxane, was used as a fuel gas. Compared to operation under pure H2, which reliably gives a steady state output, the cell showed a 10% loss in voltage after 3 hours each at 1 ppmv D5 and 5 ppmv D5. Another cell operated on H2 gas containing 10 ppmv D5 experienced a 13% loss in voltage output after 6 hours, and SEM/EDS analysis showed the presence of silica deposits on the cell anodes. This was viewed as water generated via electrochemical reaction hydrolyzing siloxanes to silica and poisoning the SOFC anode. However, when humidified methane, a better landfill gas analogue, was spiked with D5, the cell’s voltage output was stable, and silica was not detected on the anode; instead D5 was deposited as silica on surfaces inside the ProboStat™. Thus, the necessity of humidifying the hydrocarbon fuel also provided a protection against anode poisoning by siloxanes. Nevertheless, experiments with humidified Mahoning Landfill gas failed to reach the expected voltage and current output. It was not clear from SEM/EDS analysis what contaminants were responsible for the decreased cell performance; more surface-sensitive techniques are recommended for further studies.
Remark Master of Science in Chemistry, Youngstown State University, Department of Chemistry.
Link
ID=566

Ruddlesden-Popper-type Nd2-xNi1-yCuyO4±δ layered oxides as candidate materials for MIEC-type ceramic membranes

Authors BartÅomiej GÄ™dziorowski, Kacper Cichy, Anna Niemczyk, Anna Olszewska, Zijia Zhang, Szymon KopeÄ, Kun Zheng, Mateusz Marzec, Marta Gajewska, Zhihong Du, Hailei Zhao, Konrad Åšwierczek
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Volume: 40, Issue: 12, Pages: 4056-4066
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Series of Nd2-xNi1-yCuyO4±δ Ruddlesden-Popper-type oxides is obtained by auto-combustion synthesis method and systematically characterized concerning phase composition, formation of solid state solution, crystal structure, oxygen content, as well as regarding transport properties and oxygen permeability when applied as mixed conducting ceramic membranes. The A-site deficiency x is discussed in terms of structural stability and its effect on the oxygen content, with ongoing modification of total electrical conductivity observed. In selected Nd2-xNi0.75Cu0.25O4±δ oxides the dominating oxygen defects at high temperatures can be changed from oxygen interstitials to vacancies by the induced A-site deficiency, which affects bulk- and surface-related transport coefficients, as it is observed in electrical conductivity relaxation studies. The optimized Nd1.9Ni0.75Cu0.25O4±δ sinters having increased ionic conductivity, as well as fine, well-sintered microstructure allow to achieve one of the higher reported oxygen fluxes for CO2-stable Ruddlesden-Popper-based ceramic membranes (e.g. 0.49¯mL¯cm−2¯min−1 at ca. 880¯°C for 1.05¯mm thickness).
Keywords Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, Nonstoichiometric compounds, Crystal structure, Transport properties, Oxygen permeation membranes
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2020.04.054
Link
ID=564

Oxide Ion and Proton Conductivity in Highly Oxygen-Deficient Cubic Perovskite SrSc0.3Zn0.2Ga0.5O2.4

Authors Chloe A. Fuller, Quentin Berrod, Bernhard Frick, Mark R. Johnson, Maxim Avdeev, John S. O. Evans, and Ivana Radosavljevic Evans
Source
Chem. Mater.
Volume: 32, Issue: 10, Pages: 4347–4357
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract A series of Zn-substituted compounds, Sr2Sc1–xZnxGaO5–0.5x, based on the brownmillerite-type oxide ion conductor Sr2ScGaO5 have been synthesized, and a single-phase region has been identified at 0.4 ≤ x < 0.6. The structure and dynamics of Sr2Sc0.6Zn0.4GaO4.8 were investigated by X-ray and neutron diffraction, neutron total scattering and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis, impedance spectroscopy, and neutron spectroscopy. The material was found to be a highly disordered cubic perovskite with a remarkable level of oxygen deficiency across a large temperature range. These structural properties lead to an increase of oxide ion conductivity of about two orders of magnitude relative to the parent Sr2ScGaO5. The presence of proton conductivity and some water uptake was suggested by the impedance data and corroborated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), variable temperature X-ray diffraction, and neutron spectroscopy. Both proton and oxide ion conductivity produced a measurable quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) signal, and the onset of each dynamic process could be observed by monitoring the temperature dependence of the elastic and inelastic scattering intensities measured in fixed window scans. Neutron total scattering and PDF studies revealed a local structure that is markedly different from the perovskite average structure, and we propose that Sr2Sc0.6Zn0.4GaO4.8 contains a rare one-coordinate or terminal oxygen site.
Remark Link
ID=563

High-performing electrolyte-supported symmetrical solid oxide electrolysis cells operating under steam electrolysis and co-electrolysis modes

Authors Lucile Bernadet, Carlos Moncasi, Marc Torrell, Albert Tarancón
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 45, Issue: 28, Pages: 14208-14217
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Symmetrical solid oxide cells (s-SOC) present several advantages compared to typical configuration, as a reduction of sintering steps or a better thermomechanical compatibility between the electrodes and the electrolyte. Different mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) have been reported as suitable candidates for symmetrical configuration, allowing operations under steam electrolysis (SOEC) or co-electrolysis (co-SOEC) without the use of reducing safe gas (typically employed in SoA nickel based cells). In the present study, Sr2Fe1.5Mo0.5O6−δ (SFM) electrodes are deposited on both sides of YbScSZ tapes previously coated with a Ce1-xGdxO1.9 (GDC) barrier layer grown by PLD. Electrode sintering temperature is optimized and fixed at 1200 °C by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements in symmetrical atmosphere. The cell is then characterized at 900 °C in SOEC and co-SOEC modes without the use of any safe gas obtaining high current densities of 1.4 and 1.1 A cm−2 at 1.3 V respectively. Short-term reversibility is finally proven by switching the gas atmosphere between the cathode and anode sides while keeping the electrolysis conditions. Similar performances are obtained in both configurations.
Keywords Solid oxide electrolyser, SOEC, Co-electrolysis, Symmetrical, Energy storage, Safe gas
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2020.03.144
Link
ID=561

Mixed-conducting ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes: Gas permeation and counter-permeation

Authors Han-Chun Wu, Gabriel Nile, Jerry Y.S. Lin
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 605, Pages: 118093
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract CO2 and O2 permeable ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes can be used in membrane reactors for applications such as selective oxidation of hydrocarbons. Two ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes consisting of mixed electronic-ionic conducting perovskite-type ceramics of Pr0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8 and SrFe0.9Ta0.1O3-δ are studied for CO2 and O2 permeation and counter-permeation. The geometric factors for the carbonate phase and ceramic phase, obtained from the data of helium permeation and electrical conductivity, are used to calculate the effective carbonate and oxygen ionic conductivity in the carbonate and ceramic phase. Without counter-permeation, O2 permeation through the dual-phase membrane is controlled by oxygen ionic conduction in the ceramic phase and CO2 permeation is determined by the total conductance including effective carbonate and oxygen ionic conductivities in both phases. When the dual-phase membrane is exposed to CO2 on one side and O2 on the other side, counter-permeation of CO2 and O2 occurs in the opposite directions across the membrane. With CO2 counter-permeation, the oxygen ionic flux is higher than that without counter-permeation due to an increase in the driving force for oxygen transport. CO2 permeation consumes oxygen ions transporting through the membrane, resulting in a lower O2 permeation flux compared with the O2-only permeation case. However, O2 counter-permeation has negligible effect on CO2 permeation flux for the dual-phase membranes.
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2020.118093
Link
ID=558

Dielectric properties of new oxide phases Ln0.65Sr1.35Co0.5Ti0.5O4 (Ln = La, Nd, Pr) with the K2NiF4 - type structure

Authors Yu.A. Deeva, T.I. Chupakhina, N.V. Melnikova, A.A. Mirzorakhimov
Source
Ceramics International
Volume: 46, Issue: 10, Part A, Pages: 15305-15313
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract New complex oxides of the composition Ln0.65Sr1.35Co0.5Ti0.5O4 (Ln = La, Nd, Pr) with the K2NiF4 – type structure were synthesized using the citrate-nitrate method. Their crystal chemical characteristics and dielectric properties are researched. Different values of frequency-independent dielectric constants are observed in a wide frequency range of 103–107 Hz in ceramics prepared at a temperature of 1300 °C. The highest permittivity ε is about 102 (at ambient temperature) in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz for La0.65Sr1.35Co0.5Ti0.5O4 and Pr0.65Sr1.35Co0.5Ti0.5O4 samples. Co3+ and rare earth elements (La, Nd, Pr) co-doping Sr2TiO4 solid solution distorts the coordination polyhedra (Co,Ti)O6 and SrO9, which leads to an Re ε increase by several times. The surface microstructure of ceramics was investigated. The samples relative density correlates with the dielectric constant value. A sample of the Nd0.65Sr1.35Co0.5Ti0.5O4 composition has a lower relative density and, accordingly, a lower Re ε value. The results of dielectric properties researches show that the structure anisotropy and the samples morphology have a significant effect on the value of the dielectric constant.
Keywords Sol–gel processes Grain size Perovskites Dielectric properties
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2020.03.071
Link
ID=557

Activation of C−H Bond of Propane by Strong Basic Sites Generated by Bulk Proton Conduction on V‐Modified Hydroxyapatites for the Formation of Propene

Authors Sarah Petit, Cyril Thomas, Yannick Millot, Jean‐Marc Krafft, Christel Laberty‐Robert, Guylène Costentin
Source
ChemCatChem
Volume: 12, Issue: 9, Pages: 2506-2521
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract Insights into the catalytic transformation of propane to propene on V‐apatite catalysts are provided based on structure‐reactivity relationships. Substitution of phosphates by vanadates in the hydroxyapatite structure leads to the formation of Ca10(PO4)6‐x(VO4)x(OH)2‐yOy V‐oxy‐hydroxy‐apatite solid solutions (x=0→6). Bulk vanadium incorporation promotes (i) calcium rich terminations (XPS, CO adsorption), (ii) proton deficiency inside the OH− channels (1H NMR) giving rise to O2− native species, (iii) the thermally‐activated formation of additional O2− species along the OH− channels resulting in H‐bonding interaction (in situ DRIFT) and (iv) the proton conduction process that eventually results in the surface exposure of O2− species (in situ impedance spectroscopy). The exposure of Ca2+−O2− surface acid‐base pairs allows the dissociation of hydrogen, emphasizing the strong basicity of the related O2− species. Whereas an increasing vanadium content is beneficial to propene selectivity, it scarcely impacts propane conversion. The reaction proceeds mainly upon oxidative dehydrogenation, even if the minor dehydrogenation route is also observed. Surface O2− generated thanks to proton mobility are involved in the C−H bond activation, as shown by the synergistic effect between the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane reaction and the bulk proton conduction measured under operando conditions. This puts emphasis on the key role of strong basic sites for propane activation.
Remark https://doi.org/10.1002/cctc.201902181
Link
ID=553

A detailed kinetic model for the reduction of oxygen on LSCF-GDC composite cathodes

Authors Alessandro Donazzi, Giulio Cordaro, Andrea Baricci, Zhao-Bin Ding, Matteo Maestri
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Time of Publication: 2020
Abstract A kinetic investigation of the Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) is performed on LSCF-GDC composite cathodes (La0.4Sr0.6Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2-δ 50/50) spanning a wide range of operating conditions. EIS tests are carried out on symmetric cells between 700 °C and 560 °C at OCV, with O2/N2 mixtures at varying O2 molar fraction (5–21%). A dynamic, one-dimensional, physic model of the LSCF-GDC electrode is applied to rationalize the experimental results. The model simulates the spectra by solving mass and charge conservation equations, including terms for gas diffusion in the porous electrode and solid state transport in both the LSCF and the GDC lattice. A thermodynamically consistent, detailed kinetic scheme is applied to describe the ORR mechanism, which takes into account elementary steps of adsorption and desorption, first and second electronation at the gas/electrode interface, interfacial and lattice ion transfer. A full set of rate parameters (pre-exponential factors and activation energies) is derived by fitting to inhouse-measured impedance data, and validated against a well-established literature dataset. The sensitivity analysis supports the prevailing role of the TPB route over the 2 PB route, and highlights that the transfer of a single-charged oxygen adatom from the LSCF surface to the GDC lattice governs the ORR. The model clarifies the origin of distortions in measured impedance arcs, and captures the effect of O2 pressure on the observed electrochemical activity.
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2020.135620
Link
ID=544

Mn-rich SmBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ double perovskite cathode material for SOFCs

Authors Anna Olszewska, Yang Zhang, Zhihong Du, Mateusz Marzec, Konrad &#346;wierczek, Hailei Zhao, Bogdan Dabrowski
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 44, Issue: 50 Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract SmBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ oxide with Sm-Ba cation-ordered perovskite-type structure is synthesized and examined in relation to whole RBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ series (R: selected rare earth elements). Presence of Sm and 3:1 ratio of Mn to Co allows to balance physicochemical properties of the composition, with moderate thermal expansion coefficient value of 18.70(1)·10−6 K−1 in 300–900 °C range, high concentration of disordered oxygen vacancies in 600–900 °C range (δ = 0.16 at 900 °C), and good transport properties with electrical conductivity reaching 33 S cm−1 at 900 °C in air. Consequently, the compound enables to manufacture catalytically-active cathode, with good electrochemical performance measured for the electrolyte-supported laboratory-scale solid oxide fuel cell with Ni-Gd1.9Ce0.1O2-δ|La0.4Ce0.6O2-δ|La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ|SmBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ configuration, for which 1060 mW cm−2 power density is observed at 900 °C. Furthermore, the tested symmetrical SmBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ|La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ|SmBaCo0.5Mn1.5O5+δ cell delivers 377 mW cm−2 power density at 850 °C, which is a promising result.
Keywords Mn-rich layered perovskites; Physicochemical properties; Cathode materials; SOFC; Symmetrical SOFC
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.08.254
Link
ID=540

Ceria-Based Dual-Phase Membranes for High-Temperature Carbon Dioxide Separation: Effect of Iron Doping and Pore Generation with MgO Template

Authors
Source
Membranes
Volume: 9, Issue: 9, Pages: 108
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Dual-phase membranes for high-temperature carbon dioxide separation have emerged as promising technology to mitigate anthropogenic greenhouse gases emissions, especially as a pre- and post-combustion separation technique in coal burning power plants. To implement these membranes industrially, the carbon dioxide permeability must be improved. In this study, Ce0.8Sm0.2O2−δ (SDC) and Ce0.8Sm0.19Fe0.01O2−δ (FSDC) ceramic powders were used to form the skeleton in dual-phase membranes. The use of MgO as an environmentally friendly pore generator allows control over the membrane porosity and microstructure in order to compare the effect of the membrane’s ceramic phase. The ceramic powders and the resulting membranes were characterized using ICP-OES, HSM, gravimetric analysis, SEM/EDX, and XRD, and the carbon dioxide flux density was quantified using a high-temperature membrane permeation setup. The carbon dioxide permeability slightly increases with the addition of iron in the FSDC membranes compared to the SDC membranes mainly due to the reported scavenging effect of iron with the siliceous impurities, with an additional potential contribution of an increased crystallite size due to viscous flow sintering. The increased permeability of the FSDC system and the proper microstructure control by MgO can be further extended to optimize carbon dioxide permeability in this membrane system.
Keywords samarium doped ceria; SDC; FSDC; CO2 separation membranes; scavenging effect of iron; permeability
Remark https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes9090108
Link
ID=532

Influence of Lanthanum Doping on Structural and Electrical/Electrochemical Properties of Double Perovskite Sr2CoMoO6 as Anode Materials for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors Pravin Kumar, Paramananda Jena, P. K. Patro, R. K. Lenka, A. S. K. Sinha, Prabhakar Singh, Rajendra Kumar Singh
Source
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
Volume: 11, Issue: 27, Pages: 24659-24667
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Lanthanum (La3+)-doped double perovskites Sr2CoMoO6 (Sr2–xLaxCoMoO6, 0.00 ≤ x ≤ 0.03) were synthesized via the citrate–nitrate autocombustion route. The Reitveld refinement analysis of X-ray diffraction reveals the tetragonal symmetry as the main phase with space group I4/m and also confirms the presence of some peaks corresponding to extra phase SrMoO4. The SEM micrograph images reflect that grains are in irregular shape and sizes for all samples. Average grain size gradually decreases with the increase of the SrMoO4 phase. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirms the presence of mixed valence states of Mo5+/Mo6+, Co2+/Co3+, and O-lattice/O-chemisorbed/O-physisorbed species. Coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) analysis shows that the particular composition Sr1.97La0.03CoMoO6 has the lowest CTE value among the compositions studied. The electrical conductivity of Sr2CoMoO6 is enhanced effectively by doping La at Sr sites. The measured area-specific resistance (ASR) for the composition Sr1.97La0.03CoMoO6 (SLCM03) is found to be appreciably low, ∼0.053 Ohm cm–2 at 800 °C. The obtained highest electrical conductivity with the lowest activation energy and low ASR value for the composition Sr1.97La0.03CoMoO6 encompasses it as a promising candidate for anode material in the intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC) application.
Remark Link
ID=523

Comparative Study of Electrical Conduction and Oxygen Diffusion in the Rhombohedral and Bixbyite Ln6MoO12 (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb) Polymorphs

Authors Anna V. Shlyakhtina, Nikolay V. Lyskov, Maxim Avdeev, Vladimir G. Goffman, Nikolay V. Gorshkov, Alexander V. Knotko, Igor V. Kolbanev, Olga K. Karyagina, Konstantin I. Maslakov, Lidia G. Shcherbakova, Ekaterina M. Sadovskaya, Vladislav A. Sadykov, Nikita
Source
Inorg. Chem.
Volume: 58, Issue: 7, Pages: 4275-4288
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Electrical conduction and oxygen diffusion mobility in the bixbyite (Ia3̅) and rhombohedral (R3̅) polymorphs of the Ln6MoO12−Δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb; Δ = δ, δ1, δ2; δ1 > δ2) heavy lanthanide molybdates, belonging to new, previously unexplored classes of potential mixed (ionic–electronic) conductors, have been studied in the range of 200–900 °C. The oxygen self-diffusion coefficient in bixbyite (Ia3̅) Yb6MoO12−δ phase estimated by the temperature-programmed heteroexchange with C18O2 was shown to be much higher than that for rhombohedral (R3̅) RI (with large oxygen deficiency) and (R3̅) RII (with small oxygen deficiency) Ln6MoO12−Δ (Ln = Tm, Yb; Δ = δ1; δ1 > δ2) oxides. According to the activation energy for total conduction in ambient air, 0.99, 0.93, and 1.01 eV in Er6MoO12−δ, Tm6MoO12−δ, and Yb6MoO12−δ bixbyites, respectively, oxygen ion conductivity prevails in the range ∼200–500 °C. Oxygen mobility data for the rhombohedral Ln6MoO12−Δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb; Δ = δ1, δ2) phases RI and RII indicate that the oxygen in these phases exhibits mobility at much higher temperatures, such as those above 600–700 °C. Accordingly, below 600–700 °C they have predominantly electronic conductivity. As shown by total conductivity study of Ln6MoO12−δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb) bixbyites (Ia3̅) and rhombohedral phases Ln6MoO12−Δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb; Δ = δ1, δ2) (R3̅) in dry and wet air, the proton conductivity contribution exists only in Ln6MoO12−δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb) bixbyites up to 450–600 °C and decreases with a decreasing of the lanthanide ionic radius. The obtained data on the mobility of oxygen and the presence of proton contribution in bixbyites in the 300–600 °C temperature range make it possible to confirm unequivocally that Ln6MoO12−δ (Ln = Er, Tm, Yb) bixbyites are mixed electron–proton conductors at these temperatures.
Remark Link
ID=517

Surface reactivity and cation non-stoichiometry in BaZr1−xYxO3−δ (x = 0–0.2) exposed to CO2 at elevated temperature

Authors
Source
J. Mater. Chem. A
Volume: 7, Pages: 3848-3856
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract The reactivity of BaZr1−xYxO3−δ (x = 0–0.2) ceramics under 1 atm CO2 at 650 °C for up to 1000 h was investigated in order to elucidate possible degradation processes occurring when the material is applied as a proton-conducting electrolyte in electrochemical devices. The annealed ceramics were characterized by a range of techniques (SEM, TEM, GIXRD, XPS and SIMS) with respect to changes in the phase composition and microstructure. Formation of BaCO3 was observed on the surfaces of the annealed samples and the amount increased with time and was higher for the Y-doped compositions. The subsurface regions were found to be deficient in Ba and, in the case of the Y-doped compositions, enriched in Y in two distinct chemical states as identified by XPS. First-principles calculations showed that they were Y residing on the Zr and Ba-sites, respectively, and that local enrichment of Y both in bulk and on the surface attained a structure similar to Y2O3. Overall, it was substantiated that the reaction with CO2 mainly proceeded according to a defect chemical reaction involving transfer of Y to the Ba-site and consumption of BaZrO3 formula units. It was suggested that a similar degradation mechanism may occur in the case of Ba(OH)2 formation under high steam pressure conditions.
Remark Link
ID=515

Synthesis of Li4+xSi1−xFexO4 solid solution by dry ball milling and its highly efficient CO2 chemisorption in a wide temperature range and low CO2 concentrations

Source
J. Mater. Chem. A
Volume: 7, Pages: 4153-4164
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract To be considered a good CO2 capture material for industrial applications, alkaline ceramics have to present several properties such as fast sorption and desorption kinetics, large sorption capacities, regenerability and stability, and a wide operating temperature range. In this sense, Li4SiO4 fulfills some of these features, although it has some kinetic disadvantages at temperatures lower than 500 °C and under low CO2 partial pressures. Herein, we show an easy an efficient way to synthesize a Fe-containing Li4SiO4 solid solution (Li4+xSi1−xFexO4, with x ≤ 0.5); by a dry ball milling synthesis, with high CO2 capture capacities. A synergic effect, between the microstructural features given by the proposed synthesis method and the iron content, improves the CO2 capture exhibited by the material in different ways: (1) Li4+xSi1−xFexO4 solid solution samples are able to trap large amounts of CO2 between 200 and 650 °C. At 200 °C, the solid solution chemisorbs 11 wt% of CO2, the largest amount of CO2 captured reported so far in the literature at this temperature; (2) iron containing samples diminish the CO2 capture dependence on temperature; (3) CO2 capture was considerably improved under low partial pressures of CO2 and (4) iron redox properties enhanced the CO2 capture, by using a low partial pressure of O2.
Remark Link
ID=513

Template-free mesoporous La0.3Sr0.7Ti1-xFexO3±δ for CH4 and CO oxidation catalysis

Authors Bu&#287;ra Kayaalp, Siwon Lee, Kurt Klauke, Jongsu Seo, Luca Nodaric, Andreas Kornowski, WooChul Jung, Simone Mascotto
Source
Applied catalysis B: Enviromental
Volume: 245, Pages: 536-545
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract The design of perovskite oxides with improved textural properties in combination with tunable composition variations is a forward-looking strategy for the preparation of next generation catalytic converter. In the present work we report the template-free synthesis of mesoporous solid solutions of La0.3Sr0.7Ti1-xFexO3±δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5) and the study of their catalytic performance towards CH4 and CO oxidation. Using an innovative polymer complex route, phase pure perovskite solid solutions with specific surface area of 65 m2 g−1 and average pore size of 15 nm were prepared. The iron concentration increase led to a progressive enhancement of not only both concentration and transport of the charge carriers but also reducibility and oxygen desorption capability on the catalyst. As a result, we observed almost complete conversion of CH4 and CO at 600 °C and 300 °C, respectively. Kinetic studies on methane oxidation showed that competing suprafacial and intrafacial reaction mechanisms coexist, and that the concentration of 30% of Fe maximizes the suprafacial contribution. Under reducing conditions at 600 °C the materials retained their structural and morphological integrity, showing superior stability. Finally, the reaction rate of CH4 and CO conversion evidenced that our systems are by a maximum of 90 times more performing than other bulk and nanoporous Fe-based perovskites in literature (e.g. La0.66Sr0.34Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ), as a result their large surface area, intimate gas-solid contact and short intragrain oxygen diffusion pathways induced by the mesoporous structure.
Remark Link
ID=512

Versatile Application of Redox Processes for REBaCoMnO5+δ (RE: La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, and Y) Oxides

Authors Anna Olszewska, Konrad &#346;wierczek, Wojciech Skubida, Zhihong Du, Hailei Zhao, Bogdan Dabrowski
Source
J. Phys. Chem. C
Volume: 123, Issue: 1, Pages: 48-61
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Belonging to the not fully explored REBaCo2-xMnxO5+δ system, a series of REBaCoMnO5+δ (RE: selected rare earth elements) oxides having perovskite-type structure is synthesized and studied in terms of their structural properties, oxygen content, stability, thermal expansion, and transport properties. Impact of RE3+ on physicochemical properties of the compounds is derived, with smaller cations causing a decrease of the unit cell volume, lowering of the total oxygen content and thermal expansion, but also suppressing electrical conductivity. It is shown that a proper chemical modification enables to successfully utilize REBaCoMnO5+δ in applications, in which redox processes associated with oxygen reduction/oxidation and transport determine the effectiveness of the working material. In particular, NdBaCoMnO5+δ (with larger Nd3+) shows good chemical stability in relation to Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ and La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ solid electrolytes and moderate thermal expansion, 20.04(4)·10–6 K–1 in 300–900 °C. In symmetrical configuration with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ electrolyte its cathodic polarization resistance is found to be only 0.036 Ω cm2 at 900 °C, making it an excellent candidate cathode for solid oxide fuel cells. At the same time, YBaCoMnO5+δ (with small and cheap Y3+) delivers reversible oxygen storage capacity surpassing 3.4 wt % during the oxygen partial pressure swing process between air and 5 vol % H2 in Ar at 500 °C.
Remark Link
ID=510

Effect of magnetron sputtered anode functional layer on the anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell performance

Authors A.A. Solovyeva, A.M. Lebedynskiy, A.V. Shipilova, I.V. Ionov, E.A. Smolyanskiy, A.L. Lauk, G.E. Remnev
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Nickel oxide-yttria stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) thin films were reactively sputter-deposited by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering from the Ni and ZrY targets onto heated commercial NiO-YSZ substrates. The microstructure and composition of the deposited films were investigated with regard to application as thin anode functional layers (AFLs) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The pore size, microstructure and phase composition of both as-deposited and annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h AFLs were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry and controlled by changing the deposition process parameters. The results show that annealing in air at 1200 °C is required to improve structural homogeneity of the films. NiO-YSZ films have pores and grains of several hundred nanometers in size after reduction in hydrogen. Adhesion of deposited films was evaluated by scratch test. Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with the magnetron sputtered anode functional layer, YSZ electrolyte and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF/CGO) cathode were fabricated and tested. Influence of thin anode functional layer on performance of anode-supported SOFCs was studied. It was shown that electrochemical properties of the single fuel cells depend on the NiO volume content in the NiO-YSZ anode functional layer. Microstructural changes of NiO-YSZ layers after nickel reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling were studied. After nine redox cycles at 750 °C in partial oxidation conditions, the cell with the anode NiO-YSZ layer showed stable open circuit voltage values with the power density decrease by 11% only.
Remark In Press, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.11.193
Link
ID=508

Improved CO2 flux by dissolution of oxide ions into the molten carbonate phase of dual-phase CO2 separation membranes

Authors Wen Xing, Zuoan Li, Thijs Peters, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Michael McCann, Anna Evans, Truls Norby, Rune Bredesen
Source
Separation and Purification Technology
Volume: 212, Pages: 723-727
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract In a solid-liquid dual-phase CO2 separation membrane, the native ions in the molten alkali carbonate, including carbonate anions and metal cations can transport CO2 in a process that is charge-compensated by electronic species (electrons or holes), oxide ions, or hydroxide ions, depending on materials and conditions. This strongly affects the design of experiments for assessing the performance of these membranes, and further determines the routes for integration of these membranes in industrial applications. Here we report how dissolved oxides in the liquid carbonate improve the CO2 flux of the membrane due to an enhanced charge-compensating oxygen ion transport. A qualitative understanding of the magnitude and role of oxide ion conductivity in the molten phase and in the solid support as a function of the temperature is provided. Employing a solid matrix of ceria, and dissolving CsVO3 and MoO3 oxides in the molten carbonate phase led to an almost doubled CO2 flux at 550 °C under dry ambient conditions. When the sweep gas contained 2.5% H2O, the CO2 flux was increased further due to formation of hydroxide ions in the molten carbonate acting as charge compensating species. Also, as a consequence of permeation controlled by ions in the liquid phase, the CO2 flux increased with the pore volume of the solid matrix.
Remark Link
ID=504

A comprehensive study on improved power materials for high-temperature thermoelectric generators

Authors
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 410-411, Pages: 143-151
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Dense Ca3Co4O9-NaxCoO2-Bi2Ca2Co2O9 (CCO-NCO-BCCO) nanocomposites were produced from sol-gel derived Ca2.25Na0.3Bi0.35Tb0.1Co4O9 powder by four methods: Hot-pressing (HP), spark plasma sintering (SPS) and pressureless sintering in air or O2 atmosphere. Nanocomposites from HP and SPS revealed nanosized grains and showed a thermoelectric power factor of 4.8 and 6.6 μW cm−1 K−2, respectively, at 1073 K in air. A dense 2D nanocomposite with structures on multiple length scales and enhanced thermoelectric properties was obtained from pressureless sintering in O2 atmosphere. The resulting 2D nanocomposite enabled the simultaneous increase in isothermal electrical conductivity σ and Seebeck coefficient α, and showed a thermoelectric power factor of 8.2 μW cm−1 K−2 at 1073 K in air. The impact of materials with enhanced electrical conductivity and power factor on the electrical power output of thermoelectric generators was verified in prototypes. A high electrical power output and power density of 22.7 mW and 113.5 mW cm−2, respectively, were obtained, when a hot-side temperature of 1073 K and a temperature difference of 251 K were applied. Different p- and n-type materials were used to verify the effect of the thermoelectric figure-of-merit and power factor on the performance of thermoelectric generators.
Remark Link
ID=502

Effects of calcium doping to oxygen reduction activity on Pr2-xCaxNiMnO6 cathode

Authors Liping Sun, Huan Li, Jiaqi Zhao, Guiling Wang, Lihua Huo, Hui Zhao
Source
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume: 777, Pages: 1319-1326
Time of Publication: 2019
Abstract Pr2-xCaxNiMnO6-δ (PCNMOx, x = 0.0–0.3) are prepared successfully by glycine-nitrate method. The effects of calcium doping to the crystal structure, the oxygen non-stoichiometry, and the cathode properties are evaluated by XRD, SEM, XPS and EIS. The double perovskite PCNMOx crystallize into a monoclinic structure with space group P21/n. The unit cell volumes and thermal expansion coefficients increase systematically with Ca2+ doping, due to the gradual generation of oxygen vacancies in the lattice. Pr2-xCaxNiMnO6-δ exhibits promising chemical compatibility with the electrolyte material Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) at 1200 °C. The electrochemical characterization results indicate that both oxygen vacancy concentration and electrical conductivity play important roles to cathode properties. The optimum composition Pr1.8Ca0.2NiMnO6-δ shows the lowest polarization resistance of 0.18 Ω cm2 and highest peak power density of 0.3 W cm2 at 700 °C on GDC electrolyte supported fuel cell. The electrochemical impedance measurements under oxygen partial pressures, together with distribution of relaxation times analysis, identify three conjunctive elementary processes involved in the cathode reaction, and prove that the charge transfer process is the major rate-determining step of oxygen reduction reaction.
Remark Link
ID=496

Dy doped SrTiO3: A promising anodic material in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Saurabh Singh, Prabhakar Singh, Massimo Viviani, Sabrina Presto
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 43, Issue: 41, Pages: 19242-19249
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract The perovskite-type oxides, having a general formula ABO3, are promising candidates for anode materials in solid oxide fuel cells. In particular, doped SrTiO3 based perovskites are potential mixed ionic-electronic conductors and they are known to have excellent thermal and chemical stability along with carbon and sulfur tolerance. In this work, DyxSr1-xTiO3-δ system with x = 0.03, 0.05, 0.08 and 0.10 is studied to understand the influence of Dy content on its structural and electrical behavior. Electrochemical properties are measured, both in air and hydrogen atmosphere, and structural characterizations are performed before and after electrochemical tests and compared each other to study the stability. Results show that DyxSr1-xTiO3-δ powders with x ≤ 0.05, are single phase, while for x ≥ 0.08 a small amount of secondary phases is formed. In air, the conductivity is predominantly mixed ionic-electronic type for x ≤ 0.05, becoming ionic for x ≥ 0.08. It is observed that conductivity, for each composition, increases passing from air to hydrogen and activation energy decreases. Dy0.05Sr0.95TiO3-δ shows the highest conductivity in air whereas Dy0.08Sr0.92TiO3-δ in H2 atmosphere. Degradation observed by XRD is negligible for x ≤ 0.05 but increases with higher Dy content.
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.08.160
Link
ID=495

Efficient intermediate-temperature steam electrolysis with Y : SrZrO3–SrCeO3 and Y : BaZrO3–BaCeO3 proton conducting perovskites

Authors Kwati Leonard, Yuji Okuyama, Yasuhiro Takamura, Young-Sung Lee, Kuninori Miyazaki, Mariya E. Ivanova, Wilhelm A. Meulenberg and Hiroshige Matsumoto
Source
J. Mater. Chem. A
Volume: 6, Pages: 19113-19124
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Ceramic proton conductors have the potential to become important components in future clean and efficient energy technologies. In this manuscript, barium cerium yttrium zirconate (Ba(Zr0.5Ce0.4)8/9Y0.2O2.9) and strontium cerium yttrium zirconate (SrZr0.5Ce0.4Y0.1O2.95), proton conducting perovskites were employed as solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) electrolytes for hydrogen production via intermediate temperature steam electrolysis at 550 and 600 °C. Cathode-supported button cells examined for a 12 μm Ba(Zr0.5Ce0.4)8/9Y0.2O2.9 electrolyte, with Ni–SrZr0.5Ce0.4Y0.1O2.95 as the H2-electrode, and porous Ba0.5La0.5CoO3 as the anode reached current densities of 0.2 and 0.5 A cm−2 with applied voltage of 1.45 V, at 550 and 600 °C, respectively. Moreover, a hydrogen evolution rate of 127 μmol cm−2 per minute was achieved at 0.5 A cm−2, translating to a current efficiency of 82%. In addition, excellent cell performance was obtained using SrZr0.5Ce0.4Y0.1O2.95 as an electrolyte. Current densities of 0.2 and 0.5 A cm−2 were obtained at 600 °C with applied voltages of 1.28 and 1.63 V, achieving faradaic current efficiencies of 88 and 85%. The NiO–SrZr0.5Ce0.4Y0.1O3−δ composite cathode was more favorable for the densification of the supported Ba(Zr0.5Ce0.4)8/9Y0.2O2.9 electrolyte during sintering and could be promising for use as a cathode substrate in proton-conducting SOECs.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C8TA04019B
Link
ID=494

Computational Prediction and Experimental Realization of p-Type Carriers in the Wide-Band-Gap Oxide SrZn1–xLixO2

Authors Christos A. Tzitzeklis, Jyoti K. Gupta, Matthew S. Dyer, Troy D. Manning, Michael J. Pitcher, Hongjun J. Niu, Stanislav Savvin, Jonathan Alaria, George R. Darling, John B. Claridge, and Matthew J. Rosseinsky
Source
Inorg. Chem.
Volume: 57, Issue: 19, Pages: 11874-11883
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract It is challenging to achieve p-type doping of zinc oxides (ZnO), which are of interest as transparent conductors in optoelectronics. A ZnO-related ternary compound, SrZnO2, was investigated as a potential host for p-type conductivity. First-principles investigations were used to select from a range of candidate dopants the substitution of Li+ for Zn2+ as a stable, potentially p-type, doping mechanism in SrZnO2. Subsequently, single-phase bulk samples of a new p-type-doped oxide, SrZn1–xLixO2 (0 < x < 0.06), were prepared. The structural, compositional, and physical properties of both the parent SrZnO2 and SrZn1–xLixO2 were experimentally verified. The band gap of SrZnO2 was calculated using HSE06 at 3.80 eV and experimentally measured at 4.27 eV, which confirmed the optical transparency of the material. Powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis were combined to show that single-phase ceramic samples can be accessed in the compositional range x < 0.06. A positive Seebeck coefficient of 353(4) μV K–1 for SrZn1–xLixO2, where x = 0.021, confirmed that the compound is a p-type conductor, which is consistent with the pO2 dependence of the electrical conductivity observed in all SrZn1–xLixO2 samples. The conductivity of SrZn1–xLixO2 is up to 15 times greater than that of undoped SrZnO2 (for x = 0.028 σ = 2.53 μS cm–1 at 600 °C and 1 atm of O2).
Remark Link
ID=492

Computational Prediction and Experimental Realization of p-Type Carriers in the Wide-Band-Gap Oxide SrZn1–xLixO2

Authors Christos A. Tzitzeklis, Jyoti K. Gupta, Matthew S. Dyer, Troy D. Manning, Michael J. Pitcher, Hongjun J. Niu, Stanislav Savvin, Jonathan Alaria, George R. Darling, John B. Claridge, and Matthew J. Rosseinsky
Source
Inorg. Chem.
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract It is challenging to achieve p-type doping of zinc oxides (ZnO), which are of interest as transparent conductors in optoelectronics. A ZnO-related ternary compound, SrZnO2, was investigated as a potential host for p-type conductivity. First-principles investigations were used to select from a range of candidate dopants the substitution of Li+ for Zn2+ as a stable, potentially p-type, doping mechanism in SrZnO2. Subsequently, single-phase bulk samples of a new p-type-doped oxide, SrZn1–xLixO2 (0 < x < 0.06), were prepared. The structural, compositional, and physical properties of both the parent SrZnO2 and SrZn1–xLixO2 were experimentally verified. The band gap of SrZnO2 was calculated using HSE06 at 3.80 eV and experimentally measured at 4.27 eV, which confirmed the optical transparency of the material. Powder X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma analysis were combined to show that single-phase ceramic samples can be accessed in the compositional range x < 0.06. A positive Seebeck coefficient of 353(4) μV K–1 for SrZn1–xLixO2, where x = 0.021, confirmed that the compound is a p-type conductor, which is consistent with the pO2 dependence of the electrical conductivity observed in all SrZn1–xLixO2 samples. The conductivity of SrZn1–xLixO2 is up to 15 times greater than that of undoped SrZnO2 (for x = 0.028 σ = 2.53 μS cm–1 at 600 °C and 1 atm of O2).
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.8b00697
Link
ID=490

Wide bandgap oxides for low-temperature single-layered nanocomposite fuel cell

Authors
Source
Nano Energy
Volume: 53, Pages: 391-397
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract A composite of wide bandgap lithium-nickel-zinc-oxide (LNZ) and gadolinium-doped-cerium-oxide (GDC) was systematically analyzed for a low-temperature nanocomposite fuel cell in a so-called single-component configuration in which the electrodes and electrolyte form a homogenous mixture. We found that the operational principle of a single-layer fuel cell can be explained by electronic blocking by the oxide mixture with almost insulator-like properties in the operating voltage regime of the fuel cell, which will prevent short-circuiting, and by its catalytic properties that drive the fuel cell HOR and ORR reactions. The resistance to charge transport and leakage currents are dominant performance limiting factors of the single-component fuel cell. A test cell with Au as current collector reached a power density of 357 mWcm−2 at 550 °C. Changing the current collector to a Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05LiO2 (NCAL) coated Ni foam produced 801 mWcm−2, explained by better catalytic properties. However, utilizing NCAL coated Ni foam may actually turn the 1-layer fuel cell device into a traditional 3-layer (anode-electrolyte-cathode) structure. This work will help in improving the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of a single-layer fuel cell device important to further develop this potential energy technology.
Keywords Bandgap; Ceramic; Fuel cell; Ionic conductivity; Nanocomposite; Single-component
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoen.2018.08.070
Link
ID=488

All-Oxide Thermoelectric Module with in Situ Formed Non-Rectifying Complex p–p–n Junction and Transverse Thermoelectric Effect

Authors Nikola Kanas, Michael Bittner, Temesgen Debelo Desissa, Sathya Prakash Singh, Truls Norby, Armin Feldhoff, Tor Grande, Kjell Wiik, and Mari-Ann Einarsrud
Source
ACS Omega
Volume: 3, Issue: 8, Pages: 9899–9906
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract All-oxide thermoelectric modules for energy harvesting are attractive because of high-temperature stability, low cost, and the potential to use nonscarce and nontoxic elements. Thermoelectric modules are mostly fabricated in the conventional π-design, associated with the challenge of unstable metallic interconnects at high temperature. Here, we report on a novel approach for fabrication of a thermoelectric module with an in situ formed p–p–n junction made of state-of-the-art oxides Ca3Co4–xO9+δ (p-type) and CaMnO3–CaMn2O4 composite (n-type). The module was fabricated by spark plasma co-sintering of p- and n-type powders partly separated by insulating LaAlO3. Where the n- and p-type materials originally were in contact, a layer of p-type Ca3CoMnO6 was formed in situ. The hence formed p–p–n junction exhibited Ohmic behavior and a transverse thermoelectric effect, boosting the open-circuit voltage of the module. The performance of the module was characterized at 700–900 °C, with the highest power output of 5.7 mW (around 23 mW/cm2) at 900 °C and a temperature difference of 160 K. The thermoelectric properties of the p- and n-type materials were measured in the temperature range 100–900 °C, where the highest zT of 0.39 and 0.05 were obtained at 700 and 800 °C, respectively, for Ca3Co4–xO9+δ and the CaMnO3–CaMn2O4 composite.
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.8b01357
ID=485

A novel anode for solid oxide fuel cells prepared from phase conversion of La0.3Sr0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3-δ perovskite under humid hydrogen

Authors Min Chen, Yang Hu, Dongchu Chen, Huawen Hu, Qing Xu
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Volume: 284, Pages: 303-313
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract A novel anode for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), consisting of a Ruddlesden-Popper compound, La0.6Sr1.4Fe0.4Cr0.6O3.8, with in situ exsolved α-Fe nanoparticles (RP-LSF + Fe), is prepared from the phase conversion of the La0.3Sr0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3-δ (LSFCr-3) perovskite under humid H2 at 800 °C. On the surface of the RP-LSF + Fe anode, Fe cations are presented to be a mixture of Fe2+ and Fe3+, of which the average valence is lower than that in the bulk (Fe3+). The coverage of atomic hydrogen on the RP-LSF + Fe anode is over 0.8 in the pH2 range of 0.017–0.27 atm, implying a significant effect of these small amount (∼8 mol% on the surface) of exsolved Fe nanoparticles (∼200–300 nm) on promoting the dissociative absorption of H2. The charge transfer resistance is found to be closely related to the concentration of surface oxygen vacancies of the oxide matrix. The addition of catalytic amount of Ni (1–3 wt.%) greatly improves the fuel flexibility of the RP-LSF + Fe anode. Furthermore, it contributes to acceleration the phase conversion of the LSFCr-3 perovskite and reduced time for in situ preparation of the RP-LSF + Fe anode. The RP-LSF + Fe anode with 2.7 wt.% Ni exhibits a stable cell performance under 2.7%H2O+1:1-(H2:CO) and 2.7%H2O + CH4 for ∼30 h. It costs shortest time (30 h) to reach a stable cell voltage of 0.76 V at a galvanostatic current density of 0.25 A/cm2 under humid H2, which is clearly an active and stable anode material for SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, Oxide anode, Phase conversion, Electrodics, Fuel flexibility
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2018.07.132
Link
ID=484

Assessment of layered La2-x(Sr,Ba)xCuO4-δ oxides as potential cathode materials for SOFCs

Authors Anna Niemczyk, Anna Olszewska, Zhihong Du, Zijia Zhang, Konrad &#346;wierczeka, Hailei Zhao
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 43, Issue: 32, Pages: 15492-15504
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this paper, selected layered cuprates with La2-x(Sr,Ba)xCuO4-δ formula are evaluated as candidate cathode materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. Two synthesis routes, a typical solid state reaction and a sol-gel method yield well-crystallized La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ, La1.6Ba0.4CuO4-δ and La1.5Sr0.3Ba0.2CuO4-δ materials having tetragonal I4/mmm space group, but differing in morphology of the powder. Fine powders obtained using sol-gel route seem to be more suitable for preparation of the porous cathode layers having good adhesion on the solid electrolyte, but powders obtained after the solid state route can be also successfully utilized. Investigations of structural and transport properties, the oxygen nonstoichiometry and its change with temperature, thermal expansion, as well as chemical and thermal stability are systematically performed, to evaluate and compare basic physicochemical properties of the oxides. At room temperature the average valence state of copper is found to be in 2.2–2.35 range, indicating oxygen deficiency in all of the compounds, which further increases with temperature. The conducted high-temperature X-ray diffraction tests reveal moderate, but anisotropic thermal expansion of La2-x(Sr,Ba)xCuO4-δ, with higher expansion at temperatures above 400 °C occurring along a-axis, due to the oxygen release. However, the corresponding chemical expansion effect is small and the materials possess moderate thermal expansion in the whole studied temperature range. All compounds show relatively high electrical conductivity at the elevated temperatures, related to the Cu2+/Cu3+ charge transfer, with the highest values recorded for La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ. Comprehensive studies of chemical stability of the selected La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ material with La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ solid electrolyte revealed complex behavior, with stability being dependent apart from temperature, also on morphology of the powders. A model describing such behavior is presented. While it is possible to minimize reactivity and characterize electrochemical properties of the La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ-based cathode layer, usage of the buffer layer is indispensable to maintain full stability. It is shown that mutual chemical compatibility of La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ and commonly used La0.4Ce0.6O2-δ buffer layer material is excellent, with no reactivity even at 1000 °C for prolonged time. Laboratory-scale fuel cell with the La1.5Sr0.5CuO4-δ cathode sintered at the optimized temperature is able to deliver 0.16 W cm−2 at 800 °C while fueled with wet hydrogen.
Keywords Layered cuprates, Cathodic polarization, Chemical stability, LSGM, Buffer layer, SOFC
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.06.119
Link
ID=483

Sol-gel Zn, Fe modified SnO2 powders for CO sensors and magnetic applications

Authors Izabella Dascalu, Simona Somacescu, Cristian Hornoiu, Jose M. Calderon-Moreno, Nicolae Stanica, Hermine Stroescu, Mihai Anastasescu, Mariuca Gartner
Source
Process Safety and Environmental Protection
Volume: 117, Pages: 722-729
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Zn, Fe modified SnO2 powders were prepared by sol-gel method using Tripropylamine as chelating agent and Polyvinylpyrrolidone K90 as dispersant and stabilizer. Two compositions were taken into account: Zn, Fe modified SnO2 – 20 mol% Zn, 10 mol% Fe and Zn, Fe modified SnO2 – 20 mol% Zn, 30 mol% Fe, denoted further as SZFe1and SZFe2 respectively. The properties and the influence of Fe amount on structure, morphology and surface chemistry, electrical and magnetic properties have been investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of a polycrystalline mixture of cassiterite – SnO2, hematite – Fe2O3, franklinite – ZnFe2O4 and zincite – ZnO for the samples with different Fe content. The magnetization of SZFe2 sample was found to be composed of a ferromagnetic and a paramagnetic phase. The presence of Fe in the powders composition improved the electrical properties, demonstrating performant features in sensing characteristics (tested in CO gas concentrations varied from 50 to 1000 ppm). The magnetic investigations suggest their possible future applications as soft magnetic materials.
Keywords Oxides, Sol-gel chemistry, Surface properties, Electrical properties, CO gas sensor
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2018.06.010
Link
ID=482

Optimization and Electrochemical Properties of Double Perovskite NdBaCo2O6–δ ·LaBaCo2O5+δ as Cathode Material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

Authors Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Peida; Zhong, Yuhan; Mei, Huayue
Source
Journal of Nanoelectronics and Optoelectronics
Volume: 13, Issue: 5, Pages: 749-757(9)
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this paper, the double perovskite structure NdBaCo2O6–δ ·LaBaCo2O5+δ was used as cathode material for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The cathode material was prepared using sol in situ composite method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical measurements systems. The NdBaCo2O6–δ and (Ce, Gd, O) were prepared to get NdBaCo2O6–δ –xCe0.8Gd0.1O1.75 (x = 0–10 wt%) and with the increase of the compound (Ce, Gd, O), the electrode polarization surface resistance changes. The polarization resistance at 700 °C was only 0.032 Ω cm2. The output power of single battery was 0.363 W/cm2. The sol–gel method was used to replace Co with Fe and LaBaCo2–x Fe x O5+δ (x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.8) was prepared. It was observed that under different Fe contents, the polarization resistance of the composite cathode material LaBaCo2–x Fe x O5+δ decreases first and then increases. When x = 0.3, the minimum polarization resistance can be obtained, however, with the increase of temperature, the polarization resistance of the composite cathode material further reduced.
Remark DOI: https://doi.org/10.1166/jno.2018.2320
Link
ID=480

Novel ReBaCo1.5Mn0.5O5+δ (Re: La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd and Y) perovskite oxide: influence of manganese doping on the crystal structure, oxygen nonstoichiometry, thermal expansion, transport properties, and application as a cathode material in solid oxide f

Authors Anna Olszewska, Zhihong Du, Konrad &#346;wierczek, Hailei Zhao and Bogdan Dabrowski
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Issue: 6, Pages: 13271-13285
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this work, a novel series of Mn-containing ReBaCo1.5Mn0.5O5+δ (Re: selected rare earth elements) perovskite-type oxides is studied, with systematic measurements of physicochemical properties being reported. Comparison with the very well-studied, parent ReBaCo2O5+δ allows determination of the role of the introduced manganese concerning modification of the crystal structure at room temperature and its evolution at high temperatures, variation of the oxygen content, thermal stability of the materials, and total electrical conductivity, as well as thermal and chemical expansion. Generally, the presence of Mn cations does not affect the tendency for A-site cation ordering, resulting in an increased unit cell volume of the compounds, as well as causing an increase of the oxygen content. Reduced thermal expansion, together with high values of electrical conductivity and suitable thermal stability, makes the compounds containing larger Re3+ cations attractive from the point of view of application as cathode materials in solid oxide fuel cells. Chemical compatibility studies reveal the sufficient stability of the considered perovskites in relation to Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ solid electrolyte, while unexpected, somewhat increased reactivity towards La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3−δ and La0.4Ce0.6O2−δ is also reported. Furthermore, the electrochemical tests of the symmetric cells show strong dependence of the polarization resistance of the electrode on the synthesis and sintering temperatures. For the selected and optimized NdBaCo1.5Mn0.5O5+δ layer employed in the electrolyte-supported (LSGM) symmetric cell with a CGO buffer layer, the cathodic polarization resistance is 0.043 Ω cm2 at 900 °C. A wet hydrogen-fuelled button-type cell with the NdBaCo1.5Mn0.5O5+δ-based cathode is also prepared, delivering the maximum power density exceeding 1.3 W cm−2 at 850 °C.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C8TA03479F
Link
ID=478

Enhanced Performance of Gadolinia-Doped Ceria Diffusion Barrier Layers Fabricated by Pulsed Laser Deposition for Large-Area Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors
Source
ACS Appl. Energy Mater.
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Diffusion barrier layers are typically introduced in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to avoid reaction between state-of-the-art cathode and electrolyte materials, La1–xSrxCo1–yFeyO3-δ and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively. However, commonly used layers of gadolinia-doped ceria (CGO) introduce overpotentials that significantly reduce the cell performance. This performance decrease is mainly due to the low density achievable with traditional deposition techniques, such as screen printing, at acceptable fabrication temperatures. In this work, perfectly dense and reproducible barrier layers for state-of-the-art cells (∼80 cm2) were implemented, for the first time, using large-area pulsed laser deposition (LA-PLD). In order to minimize cation interdiffusion, the low-temperature deposited barrier layers were thermally stabilized in the range between 1100 and 1400 °C. Significant enhanced performance is reported for cells stabilized at 1150 °C showing excellent power densities of 1.25 W·cm–2 at 0.7 V and at a operation temperature of 750 °C. Improved cells were finally included in a stack and operated in realistic conditions for 4500 h revealing low degradation rates (0.5%/1000 h) comparable to reference cells. This approach opens new perspectives in manufacturing highly reproducible and stable barrier layers for a new generation of SOFCs.
Keywords Cation diffusion at CGO/YSZ interface; diffusion barrier layer; gadolinia doped ceria (CGO); pulsed laser deposition (PLD); solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs); SrZrO3
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acsaem.8b00039
Link
ID=477

Solid oxide fuel cells incorporating doped lanthanum gallate films deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at various Ar/O2 ratios and annealing conditions

Authors Yi-Xin Liu , Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Wan-Yun Yeh
Source
Surface and Coatings Technology
Volume: 344, Pages: 507-513
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this study, we prepared solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) incorporating a dense La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.88Mg0.12O3−δ (LSGM) film deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on an NiO-Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ (NiO-SDC) anode substrate. The influences of the Ar-O2 deposition atmosphere and the subsequent annealing conditions on the characteristics of the LSGM film and on the performance of the resulting SOFCs was investigated. LSGM targets with La0.76Sr0.24Ga0.63Mg0.37O3−δ composition and a deposition atmosphere with Ar/O2 ratios ranging from 10/0 to 5/5 were used throughout the study. Owing to the amorphous nature of the as-deposited LSGM films, the film deposited in an Ar/O2 = 10/0 atm required post-annealing at 950 °C for 4 h for crystallization and removal of the SrLaGa2O7 content, while the films deposited at lower Ar/O2 ratios required higher crystallization temperatures: for instance, the films deposited at Ar/O2 = 6/4 had to be annealed at 1100 °C for 2 h. The anode-supported substrates were then screen-printed with a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF)-LSGM cathode layer and fired to form SOFC cells. The single cell incorporating an LSGM film with La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.88Mg0.12O3−δ composition deposited in a pure Ar atmosphere exhibited the lowest cell resistance and thus the highest maximum power density (MPD) at all operating temperatures. The total resistance of the single cell incorporating a 4.3 μm-thick LSGM film decreased from 0.386 to 0.121 Ω cm2 as the temperature increased from 650 to 850 °C, and the open circuit voltages ranged from 0.941 to 0.861 V. The maximum power density of the single cell was 0.422, 0.736, and 1.105 W cm−2 at 650, 750, and 850 °C, respectively.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, Sputtering, Electrolyte, Doped lanthanum gallate
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.03.073
Link
ID=473

Influence of texture and grain misorientation on the ionic conduction in multilayered solid electrolytes – interface strain effects in competition with blocking grain boundaries

Authors J. Keppner, J. Schubert, M. Ziegner, B. Mogwitz, J. Janek and C. Korte
Source
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue: 14 Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Interface strain and its influence on the ionic transport along hetero-interfaces has gained a lot of attention over the last decade and is controversially discussed. We investigate the relaxation of mismatch induced interfacial strain as a function of the degree of orientation/texture of the columnar crystallites and assess the impact on the oxygen ion conductivity in Er2O3/YSZ multilayer systems. Results from X-ray diffraction clearly show, that the width of the strained hetero-interface region increases with an increasing degree of orientation of the crystallites. The combined impact of film texture and strain at the hetero-interfaces of the film on the ionic conductivity however is not easily deduced from these measurements. The samples with the highest degree of orientation, i.e. with only one azimuthal variant, show strong anisotropic electrical properties. In samples with a lower degree of orientation, i.e. samples with a fiber texture, anisotropic properties cannot be detected, possibly due to a geometrical averaging of the electrical properties. The expected strain induced monotonic increase of the ionic conductivity with decreasing layer thickness and thus increasing interfacial influence could only be detected for samples with a fiber texture and a considerable degree of crystallite misorientation. This leads to the important conclusion that the texture and therefore the nature of the grain boundaries and their network influence the ionic conductivity of the multilayer thin films in the same order of magnitude as the misfit induced interface strain. Thus, the potential design of strain-controlled ionic conductors requires additionally the control of the microstructure in terms of grain orientation.
Remark Link
ID=468

Inter-diffusion across a direct p-n heterojunction of Li-doped NiO and Al-doped ZnO

Authors Temesgen D. Desissa, Reidar Haugsrud, Kjell Wiik, Truls Norby
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 320, Pages: 215-220
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract We herein report inter-diffusion across the interface between p-type Ni0.98Li0.02O and n-type Zn0.98Al0.02O for various applications including p-n-heterojunction diodes and oxide thermoelectrics. Diffusion couples were made of polished surfaces of ceramic samples pre-sintered at 1250 and 1350 °C for Ni0.98Li0.02O and Zn0.98Al0.02O, respectively. The inter-diffusion couples were annealed at 900–1200 °C for 160 h in ambient air. Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to acquire diffusion profiles, followed by fitting to Ficks second law and Whipple–Le Claires models for bulk and grain-boundary diffusion calculation, respectively. Zn2+ diffused into Ni0.98Li0.02O mainly by bulk diffusion with an activation energy of 250 ± 10 kJ/mol, whereas Ni2+ diffused into Zn0.98Al0.02O by both bulk and enhanced grain boundary diffusion with activation energies of 320 ± 120 kJ/mol and 245 ± 50 kJ/mol, respectively. The amount of Al3+ diffused from the Al-doped ZnO into the NiO phase was too small for a corresponding diffusion coefficient to be calculated. Li-ion distribution and diffusivity were not determined due to lack of analyzer sensitivity for Li. The bulk and effective diffusivities of Zn2+ and Ni2+ into NiO and ZnO enable prediction of inter-diffusion lengths as a function of time and temperature, allowing estimates of device performance, stability, and lifetimes at different operation temperatures.
Keywords NiO, ZnO, Cation diffusion, Grain-boundary diffusion, p-n junction
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2018.03.011
Link
ID=466

Structural transformations, water incorporation and transport properties of tin-substituted barium indate

Authors Kacper Cichy, Wojciech Skubid, Konrad &#346;wierczek
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 262, Pages: 58-67
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Incorporation of water into tin-substituted BaIn1-xSnxO3-δ (x = 0.1–0.3) is shown to influence crystal structure at room temperature, structural transformations at high temperatures and ionic transport properties of the materials. Increasing tin content stabilizes oxygen vacancy-disordered perovskite-type phase, which together with large changes of the unit cell volume occurring during hydration and dehydration processes, result in a complex structural behavior, as documented by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric studies. Impedance spectroscopy measurements at elevated temperatures (350–800 °C) revealed very high proton conductivity in BaIn.8Sn.2O3-δ, exceeding 1.1·10−3 S cm−1 at 500 °C, with high values of the transference number in wet air. At the same time, relaxation kinetics of the electrical conductivity showed a monotonous nature, which indicates negligible component of the electronic hole conductivity in the hydrated material. The oxides are extremely moisture-sensitive, which results in a significant mechanical stability problems, affecting possibility to prepare electrolyte membranes.
Keywords Barium indate, Hydration, Structural transformations, Proton conductivity, Relaxation experiments
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2018.03.004
Link
ID=463

Does the conductivity of interconnect coatings matter for solid oxide fuel cell applications?

Authors Claudia Goebel, Alexander G. Fefekos, Jan-Erik Svensson, Jan Froitzheim
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 383, Pages: 110-114
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract The present work aims to quantify the influence of typical interconnect coatings used for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) on area specific resistance (ASR). To quantify the effect of the coating, the dependency of coating thickness on the ASR is examined on Crofer 22 APU at 600 °C. Three different Co coating thicknesses are investigated, 600 nm, 1500 nm, and 3000 nm. Except for the reference samples, the material is pre-oxidized prior to coating to mitigate the outward diffusion of iron and consequent formation of poorly conducting (Co,Fe)3O4 spinel. Exposures are carried out at 600 °C in stagnant laboratory air for 500 h and subsequent ASR measurements are performed. Additionally the microstructure is investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). On all pre-oxidized samples, a homogenous dense Co3O4 top layer is observed beneath which a thin layer of Cr2O3 is present. As the ASR values range between 7 and 12 mΩcm2 for all pre-oxidized samples, even though different Co3O4 thicknesses are observed, the results strongly suggest that for most applicable cases the impact of the coating on ASR is negligible and the main contributor is Cr2O3.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, Interconnect, Corrosion, Coating, Area specific resistance, Cr2O3
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.02.060
Link
ID=462

Amorphous-cathode-route towards low temperature SOFC

Authors Andrea Cavallaro, Stevin S. Pramana, Enrique Ruiz-Trejo, Peter C. Sherrell, Ecaterina Ware, John A. Kilner and Stephen J. Skinner
Source
Volume: 2, Pages: 862-875
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Lowering the operating temperature of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) devices is one of the major challenges limiting the industrial breakthrough of this technology. In this study we explore a novel approach to electrode preparation employing amorphous cathode materials. La0.8Sr0.2CoO3−δ dense films have been deposited at different temperatures using pulsed laser deposition on silicon substrates. Depending on the deposition temperature, textured polycrystalline or amorphous films have been obtained. Isotope exchange depth profiling experiments reveal that the oxygen diffusion coefficient of the amorphous film increased more than four times with respect to the crystalline materials and was accompanied by an increase of the surface exchange coefficient. No differences in the surface chemical composition between amorphous and crystalline samples were observed. Remarkably, even if the electronic conductivities measured by the Van Der Pauw method indicate that the conductivity of the amorphous material was reduced, the overall catalytic properties of the cathode itself were not affected. This finding suggests that the rate limiting step is the oxygen mobility and that the local electronic conductivity in the amorphous cathode surface is enough to preserve its catalytic properties. Different cathode materials have also been tested to prove the more general applicability of the amorphous-cathode route.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C7SE00606C
Link
ID=460

Co-deficient PrBaCo2−xO6−δ perovskites as cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: Enhanced electrochemical performance and oxygen reduction kinetics

Authors Likun Zhang, Shuli Li, Tian Xia, Liping Sun, Lihua Huo, Hui Zhao
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 43, Issue: 7, Pages: 3761-3775
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Co-deficient PrBaCo2−xO6−δ perovskites (x = 0, 0.02, 0.06 and 0.1) are synthesized by a solid-state reaction, and the effects of Co-deficiency on the crystal structure, oxygen nonstoichiometry and electrochemical properties are investigated. The PrBaCo2−xO6−δ samples have an orthorhombic layered perovskite structure with double c axis. The degree of oxygen nonstoichiometry increases with decreasing Co content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06) and then slightly decreases at x = 0.1. All the samples exhibit the electrical conductivity values of >300 S cm−1 in the temperature range of 100–800 °C in air, which match well the requirement of cathode. With significantly enhanced electrochemical performance and good chemical compatibility between PrBaCo2−xO6−δ and CGO, this system of Co-deficient perovskite is promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs. Among all these components, PrBaCo1.94O6−δ gives lowest polarization resistance of 0.059 Ω cm2 at 700 °C in air. When tested as cathode in fuel cell, the anode-supported Ni-YSZ|YSZ|CGO|PrBaCo1.94O6−δ cell delivers a maximum peak power density of 889 mW cm−2 at 650 °C, which is higher than that of PrBaCoO6−δ cathode-based cell (764 mW cm−2). The oxygen reduction kinetics at the PrBaCo1.94O6−δ cathode interface is also explored, and the rate-limiting steps for oxygen reduction reaction are determined.
Keywords Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells, Cathode material, Layered perovskite, Electrochemical performance, Oxygen reduction kinetics
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.01.018
Link
ID=459

Deposition of nickel oxide-yttria stabilized zirconia thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

Authors A.A .Solovyev, A.M. Lebedynskiy, A.V. Shipilova, I.V.Ionov, E.A. Smolyanskiy, A.L. Lauk, G.E. Remnev
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Nickel oxide-yttria stabilized zirconia (NiO-YSZ) thin films were reactively sputter-deposited by pulsed direct current magnetron sputtering from the Ni and Zr-Y targets onto heated commercial NiO-YSZ substrates. The microstructure and composition of the deposited films were investigated with regard to application as thin anode functional layers (AFLs) for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The porosity and microstructure of both as-deposited and annealed at 1200 °C for 2 h AFLs were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry and controlled by changing the deposition process parameters. The results show that annealing in air at 1200 °C is required to improve film crystallinity and structural homogeneity. NiO-YSZ films have pores and grains of several hundred nanometers in size after reduction in hydrogen. Adhesion of deposited films was evaluated by scratch test. Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with the magnetron sputtered anode functional layer, YSZ electrolyte and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF/CGO) cathode were fabricated and tested. Influence of thin anode functional layer on performance of anode-supported SOFCs was studied. It was shown that electrochemical properties of the single fuel cells depend on the NiO volume content in the NiO-YSZ anode functional layer. Microstructural changes of NiO-YSZ layers after nickel reduction-oxidation (redox) cycling were studied. After nine redox cycles at 750 °C in partial oxidation conditions, the cell with the anode NiO-YSZ layer showed stable open circuit voltage values with the power density decrease by 11% only.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cells, Magnetron sputtering, Thin-film anode, Microstructure, Redox cycling
Remark Available online 7 February 2018, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.01.076
Link
ID=458

Solid oxide fuel cells with apatite-type lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering

Authors Yi-Xin Liu, Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Chi-Hua Wang
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 381, Pages: 101-106
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing high-quality apatite-type magnesium doped lanthanum silicate-based electrolyte films (LSMO) deposited by RF magnetron sputtering are successfully fabricated. The LSMO film deposited at an Ar:O2 ratio of 6:4 on an anode supported NiO/Sm0.2Ce0·8O2-δ (SDC) substrate followed by post-annealing at 1000 °C reveals a uniform and dense c-axis oriented polycrystalline structure, which is well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite SDC/La0·6Sr0·4Co0·2Fe0·8O3-δ cathode layer is subsequently screen-printed on the LSMO deposited anode substrate and fired. The SOFC fabricated with the LSMO film exhibits good mechanical integrity. The single cell with the LSMO layer of ≈2.8 μm thickness reports a total cell resistance of 1.156 and 0.163 Ωcm2, open circuit voltage of 1.051 and 0.982 V, and maximum power densities of 0.212 and 1.490 Wcm−2 at measurement temperatures of 700 and 850 °C, respectively, which are comparable or superior to those of previously reported SOFCs with yttria stabilized zirconia electrolyte films. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of deposition of high-quality LSMO films by RF magnetron sputtering on NiO-SDC anode substrates for the fabrication of SOFCs with good cell performance.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, Sputtering, Electrolyte Doped lanthanum silicate
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2018.02.007
Link
ID=457

Electrical conductivity of NiMo–based double perovskites under SOFC anodic conditions

Authors Sabrina Presto, Pravin Kumar, Salil Varma, Massimo Viviani, Prabhakar Singh
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 43, Issue: 9, Pages: 4528-4533
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Three different materials are prepared by chemical reaction route, Sr2NiMoO6 (SNM00), Sr1.96La004NiMoO6 (SLNM04) and Sr1.99Ce0.01NiMoO6 (SCNM01) and conductivity is measured under reducing atmosphere, in order to study their suitability as anode materials in SOFC application. Selected materials correspond to compositions reported with highest conductivity in air at operative temperatures of a SOFC among the systems SLNM (Sr2−xLaxNiMoO6, 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) and SCNM (Sr2−xCexNiMoO6, 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05). The end member Sr2NiMoO6 (SNM) is also considered as reference. Their conductivities considerably increase in wet hydrogen and follow Arrhenius behavior with lower activation energy. Effects of reduction on microstructure and phase stability are also studied by scanning electron microscopy and X–ray diffraction. The enhancement in conductivity is discussed in terms of defects chemistry. Amongst all measured samples, SLNM04 shows the highest conductivity in reducing atmosphere without phase degradation, which makes it a promising anode material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC).
Keywords Double perovskite Reduction Electrical conductivity Anodic materials SOFC
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2018.01.066
Link
ID=456

Effect of sintering temperature on the performance of composite La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3–Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 cathode for solid oxide fuel cells

Authors A.A. Solovyev, I.V. Ionov, A.V. Shipilova, P.D. Maloney
Source
Journal of Electroceramics
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Studied here are the effects of sintering temperature of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF–CGO) cathodes on their microstructure and performance of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). Phase composition, microstructure and electrochemical properties were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage characteristics measurement, respectively. The electrochemical performances of Ni–YSZ anode-supported SOFC having YSZ electrolyte (4 μm) with CGO interlayer (2 μm) are studied with LSCF–CGO (50:50 wt%) cathodes in the temperature range 600–800 °C using H2 as fuel and air as oxidant. The cathode microstructure was found to be less dense and to contain smaller grains as the sintering temperature was decreased in the range 1250–1150 °C. Results reveal that sintering temperature and electrode morphology have strong influence on electrochemical performances of the IT-SOFC. Highest maximum power density of ∼1.26 W/cm2 is achieved during cell testing at 800 °C with a cathode sintered at 1200 °C. However, cells with in-situ sintered LSCF–CGO cathode showed highest power density at 600 °C (0.48 W/cm2) because there is no particle coarsening at low sintering temperatures.
Keywords LSCF&#8211;CGO, Composite cathode, Microstructure,, Performanc, Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells
Remark https://doi.org/10.1007/s10832-018-0114-5, First Online: 29 January 2018
Link
ID=455

Proton and oxygen ion conductivity in the pyrochlore/fluorite family of Ln2−xCaxScMO7−δ (Ln = La, Sm, Ho, Yb; M = Nb, Ta; x = 0, 0.05, 0.1) niobates and tantalates

Authors A. V. Shlyakhtina, K. S. Pigalskiy, D. A. Belov, N. V. Lyskov, E. P. Kharitonova, I. V. Kolbanev, A. B. Borunova, O. K. Karyagina, E. M. Sadovskaya, V. A. Sadykov and N. F. Eremeev
Source
Dalton Transaction
Volume: 47, Pages: 2376-2392
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract The tolerance factor is a good criterion to understand the structural transitions in Ln2−xCaxScMO7−δ (Ln = La, Sm, Ho, Yb; M = Nb, Ta; x = 0, 0.05, 0.1). Decreasing the Ln ionic radius in Ln2ScNb(Ta)O7 leads to a morphotropic transition from a pyrochlore to a fluorite-like structure. Ca2+-doping leads to a pyrochlore-to-fluorite transition in Ln2−xCaxScMO7−δ (Ln = La, Sm) and a fluorite-to-pyrochlore transition in Ho2−xCaxScNbO7−δ. Proton contribution to the total conductivity was observed for Ln2−xCaxScNb(Ta)O7−δ (Ln = La, Sm; x = 0, 0.05, 0.1) 3+/5+ pyrochlores and the maximum proton contribution was shown by Sm1.9Ca0.1ScMO6.95 (M = Nb, Ta), which are located at the boundary between pyrochlores and fluorites (comparative study of electrical conduction and oxygen diffusion). Proton conduction of Sm1.9Ca0.1ScNbO6.95 and Sm1.9Ca0.1ScTaO6.95 pyrochlores persists up to 800 and 850 °C, respectively. The conductivity of fluorite-like Ho2−xCaxScNbO7−δ (x = 0, 0.05) and Yb2ScNbO7 is dominated by the oxygen ion transport, in accordance with their energy activation values 1.09–1.19 eV. The dielectric permittivity and TG studies were used for the investigation of oxygen vacancy dynamics and water incorporation into the Ln2−xCaxScNb(Ta)O7−δ (Ln = La, Sm, Ho, Yb; x = 0, 0.05, 0.1) lattice. It is shown that oxygen vacancy-related dielectric relaxation in the range of 550–650 °C (ambient air), typical of pyrochlores and fluorites with pure oxygen ion conductivity, decreases and disappears for proton-conducting oxides.
Keywords Proton and oxygen ion conductivity, Pyrochlore/fluorite family
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C7DT03912C
Link
ID=452

Enhanced O2 Flux of CaTi0.85Fe0.15O3−δ Based Membranes by Mn Doping

Authors Polfus, J. M., Xing, W., Riktor, M., Sunding, M. F., Dahl, P. I., Hanetho, S. M., Mokkelbost, T., Larring, Y., Fontaine, M.-L. and Bredesen, R.
Source
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume: 99, Issue: 3, Pages: 1071–1078
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Dense symmetric membranes of CaTi0.85−xFe0.15MnxO3−δ (x = 0.1, 0.15, 0.25, 0.4) are investigated in order to determine the optimal Mn dopant content with respect to highest O2 flux. O2 permeation measurements are performed as function of temperature between 700°C–1000°C and as function of the feed side math formula ranging between 0.01 and 1 bar. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to elucidate the charge state of Mn, and synchrotron radiation X-ray powder diffraction (SR-XPD) is employed to investigate the structure symmetry and cell volume of the perovskite phase at temperatures up to 800°C. The highest O2 permeability is found for x = 0.25 over the whole temperature and math formula ranges, followed by x = 0.4 above 850°C. The O2 permeability for x = 0.25 reaches 0.01 mL(STP) min−1 cm−1 at 925°C with 0.21 bar feed side math formula and Ar sweep gas. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the charge state of Mn changes from approx. +3 to +4 when x > 0.1, which implies that Mn mainly improves electronic conductivity for x > 0.1. The cell volume is found to decrease linearly with Mn content, which coincides with an increase in the activation energy of O2 permeability. These results are consistent with the interpretation of the temperature and math formula dependency of O2 permeation. The sintering behavior and thermal expansion properties are investigated by dilatometry, which show improved sinterability with increasing Mn content and that the thermal expansion coefficient decreases from 12.4 to 11.9 × 10−6 K−1 for x = 0 and x = 0.25, respectively.
ID=446

Enhanced Flexible Thermoelectric Generators Based on Oxide–Metal Composite Materials

Authors Benjamin Geppert, Artur Brittner, Lailah Helmich, Michael Bittner, Armin Feldhoff
Source
Journal of Electronic Materials
Volume: 46, Issue: 4, Pages: 2356–2365
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The thermoelectric performance of flexible thermoelectric generator stripes was investigated in terms of different material combinations. The thermoelectric generators were constructed using Cu-Ni-Mn alloy as n-type legs while varying the p-type leg material by including a metallic silver phase and an oxidic copper phase. For the synthesis of Ca3Co4O9/CuO/Ag ceramic-based composite materials, silver and the copper were added to the sol–gel batches in the form of nitrates. For both additional elements, the isothermal specific electronic conductivity increases with increasing amounts of Ag and CuO in the samples. The amounts for Ag and Cu were 0 mol.%, 2 mol.%, 5 mol.%, 10 mol.%, and 20 mol.%. The phases were confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Furthermore, secondary electron microscopy including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy were processed in the scanning electron microscope and the transmission electron microscope. For each p-type material, the data for the thermoelectric parameters, isothermal specific electronic conductivity σ and the Seebeck coefficient α, were determined. The p-type material with a content of 5 mol.% Ag and Cu exhibited a local maximum of the power factor and led to the generator with the highest electric power output Pel.
Remark Link
ID=444

Crystal structure and proton conductivity of BaSn 0.6 Sc 0.4 O 3  d : insights from neutron powder di ff raction and solid-state NMR spectroscopy

Authors Francis G. Kinyanjui, Stefan T. Norberg, Christopher S. Knee, Istaq Ahmed, Stephen Hull, Lucienne Buannic, Ivan Hung, Zhehong Gan, Fr &#769;ed &#769;eric Blanc, Clare P. Grey and Sten G. Eriksson
Source
J.Mater.Chem.A
Volume: 4, Issue: 14, Pages: 5088-5101
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The solid-state synthesis and structural characterisation of perovskite BaSn1−xScxO3−δ (x = 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and its corresponding hydrated ceramics are reported. Powder and neutron X-ray diffractions reveal the presence of cubic perovskites (space group Pm[3 with combining macron]m) with an increasing cell parameter as a function of scandium concentration along with some indication of phase segregation. 119Sn and 45Sc solid-state NMR spectroscopy data highlight the existence of oxygen vacancies in the dry materials, and their filling upon hydrothermal treatment with D2O. It also indicates that the Sn4+ and Sc3+ local distribution at the B-site of the perovskite is inhomogeneous and suggests that the oxygen vacancies are located in the scandium dopant coordination shell at low concentrations (x ≤ 0.2) and in the tin coordination shell at high concentrations (x ≥ 0.3). 17O NMR spectra on 17O enriched BaSn1−xScxO3−δ materials show the existence of Sn–O–Sn, Sn–O–Sc and Sc–O–Sc bridging oxygen environments. A further room temperature neutron powder diffraction study on deuterated BaSn0.6Sc0.4O3−δ refines the deuteron position at the 24k crystallographic site (x, y, 0) with x = 0.579(3) and y = 0.217(3) which leads to an O–D bond distance of 0.96(1) Å and suggests tilting of the proton towards the next nearest oxygen. Proton conduction was found to dominate in wet argon below 700 °C with total conductivity values in the range 1.8 × 10−4 to 1.1 × 10−3 S cm−1 between 300 and 600 °C. Electron holes govern the conduction process in dry oxidizing conditions, whilst in wet oxygen they compete with protonic defects leading to a wide mixed conduction region in the 200 to 600 °C temperature region, and a suppression of the conductivity at higher temperature.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/c5ta09744d
Link
ID=438

Comparative study of the electrochemical promotion of CO2 hydrogenation on Ru using Na+, K+, H+ and O2 − conducting solid electrolytes

Authors I.Kalaitzidou, M. Makri, D. Theleritis, A. Katsaounis, C.G. Vayenas
Source
Surface Science
Volume: 646, Pages: 194-203
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The kinetics and the electrochemical promotion of the hydrogenation of CO2 to CH4 and CO are compared for Ru porous catalyst films deposited on Na+, K+, H+ and O2 − conducting solid electrolyte supports. It is found that in all four cases increasing catalyst potential and work function enhances the methanation rate and selectivity. Also in all four cases the rate is positive order in H2 and exhibits a maximum with respect to CO2. At the same time the reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS) which occurs in parallel exhibits a maximum with increasing and is positive order in CO2. Also in all cases the selectivity to CH4 increases with increasing and decreases with increasing . These results provide a lucid demonstration of the rules of chemical and electrochemical promotion which imply that (∂r/∂Φ)(∂r/∂pD) > 0 and (∂r/∂Φ)(∂r/∂pA) < 0, where r denotes a catalytic rate, Φ is the catalyst work function and pD and pA denote the electron donor and electron acceptor reactant partial pressures respectively.
Keywords Electrochemical promotion of catalysis, Ion conducting support, Hydrogenation of CO2, Ruthenium catalyst, Rules of promotion, Metal&#8211;support interactions
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.susc.2015.09.011
Link
ID=437

Defect mechanisms in BaTiO3-BiMO3 ceramics

Authors
Source
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Often, addition of BiMO3 to BaTiO3 (BT) leads to improvement in resistivity with a simultaneous shift to n-type conduction from p-type for BT. In considering one specific BiMO3 composition, that is, Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BZT), several prospective candidates for the origin of this n-type behavior in BT-BZT were studied—loss of volatile cations, oxygen vacancies, bismuth present in multiple valence states and precipitation of secondary phases. Combined x-ray and neutron diffraction, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and electron energy loss spectroscopy suggested much higher oxygen vacancy concentration in BT-BZT ceramics (>4%) as compared to BT alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy did not suggest the presence of bismuth in multiple valence states. At the same time, using transmission electron microscopy, some minor secondary phases were observed, whose compositions were such that they could result in effective donor doping in BT-BZT ceramics. Using experimentally determined thermodynamic parameters for BT and slopes of Kröger-Vink plots, it has been suggested that an ionic compensation mechanism is prevalent in these ceramics instead of electronic compensation. These ionic defects have an effect of shifting the conductivity minimum in the Kröger-Vink plots to higher oxygen partial pressure values in BT-BZT ceramics as compared to BT, resulting in a significantly higher resistivity values in air atmosphere and n-type behavior. This provides an important tool to tailor transport properties and defects in BT-BiMO3 ceramics, to make them better suited for dielectric or other applications.
Remark DOI: 10.1111/jace.15403, Version of Record online: 8 JAN 2018
Link
ID=436

The Effect of Ni Doping on the Performance and Electronic Structure of LSCF Cathodes Used for IT-SOFCs

Authors Alessandro Longo, Leonarda F. Liotta, Dipanjan Banerjee, Valeria La Parola, Fabrizio Puleo, Chiara Cavallari, Christoph J. Sahle, Marco Moretti Sala, and Antonino Martorana
Source
J. Phys. Chem.: C
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract We investigated the effect of nickel doping on the electronic structure and performance of nanostructured La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8–0.03Ni0.03O3−δ prepared by the one-pot sol–gel method. The commercial undoped La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF0.8) was used as reference. Moreover, for comparison, Ni (3 mol %) was deposited by wetness impregnation over the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ. We show by in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy at 900 °C under air flow that nickel enters the B perovskite site of the material and favors the stabilization of the cobalt oxidation state, as evidenced by the delay in the decrease of the average Co valence with respect to undoped samples. Our results are further supported by in situ X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) that allowed us to monitor the temperature evolution of the O K-edge. XRS evidences that nickel-doped LSCF shows unmodified O2p-TM3d density of states, which proves that the Co oxidation state is preserved. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were carried out over half-cell systems consisting of LSCF-based materials deposited onto a Ce0.8Gd0.2O2−δ electrolyte. The improvement of the electrochemical performances of the Ni-doped La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8–0.03Ni0.03O3−δ sample with respect to a reference Ni-impregnated LSCF is attributed to the stabilization of the TM-O6 structural units, which were recently proposed as the functional units for oxygen reduction.
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b07626
Link
ID=434

Optimisation of growth parameters to obtain epitaxial Y-doped BaZrO3 proton conducting thin films

Authors
Source
Volume: 314, Pages: 9–16
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract We hereby report developments on the fabrication and characterization of epitaxial thin films of proton conducting Y-doped BaZrO3 (BZY) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on different single crystal substrates (MgO, GdScO3, SrTiO3, NdGaO3, LaAlO3 and sapphire) using Ni-free and 1% Ni-containing targets. Pure, high crystal quality epitaxial films of BZY are obtained on MgO and on perovskite-type substrates, despite the large lattice mismatch. The deposition conditions influence the morphology, cell parameters and chemical composition of the film, the oxygen partial pressure during film growth being the most determining. Film characterization was carried out using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. All films show a slight tetragonal distortion that is not directly related to the substrate-induced strain. The proton conductivity of the films depends on deposition conditions and film thickness, and for the optimised conditions its total conductivity is slightly higher than the bulk conductivity of the target material (3 mS/cm at 600 °C, in wet 5% H2/Ar). The conductivities are, however, more than one order of magnitude lower than the highest reported in literature and possible reasoning is elucidated in terms of local and extended defects in the films.
Keywords BaZrO3; Thin film; Electrolyte; Proton conductivity; SOFC; PC-SOFC
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.11.002
Link
ID=432

Microstructural engineering and use of efficient poison resistant Au-doped Ni-GDC ultrathin anodes in methane-fed solid oxide fuel cells

Authors
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 43, Issue: 2, Pages: 885–893
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Ultrathin porous solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anodes consisting of nickel-gadolinia-doped-ceria (Ni-GDC) cermets with a unique porous micro-columnar architecture with intimate contact between the GDC and the Ni phases were made by magnetron sputtering at an oblique deposition angle and characterised in detail by a variety of methods prior to use in hydrogen or methane-fuelled SOFCs. These Ni-GDC anodes exhibited excellent transport properties, were robust under thermal cycling and resistant to delamination from the underlying yttria-stabilised zirconia electrolyte. Similarly prepared Au-doped Ni-GDC anodes exhibited the same morphology, porosity and durability. The gold associated exclusively with the Ni component in which it was present as a surface alloy. Strikingly, whatever their treatment, a substantial amount of Ce3+ persisted in the anodes, even after operation at 800 °C under fuel cell conditions. With hydrogen as fuel, the un-doped and Au-doped Ni-GDC anodes exhibited identical electrochemical performances, comparable to that of much thicker commercial state-of-the-art Ni-GDC anodes. However, under steam reforming conditions with CH4/H2O mixtures the behaviour of the Au-doped Ni-GDC anodes were far superior, exhibiting retention of good power density and dramatically improved resistance to deactivation by carbon deposition. Thus two distinct beneficial effects contributed to overall performance: persistence of Ce3+ in the working anodes could induce a strong metal-support interaction with Ni that enhanced the catalytic oxidation of methane, while formation of a Nisingle bondAu surface alloy that inhibited carbonisation and poisoning of the active nickel surface.
Keywords SOFC; Ultrathin film anodes; Magnetron sputtering; Gadolinia doped ceria; Carbon-tolerant; Gold doping
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.11.020
Link
ID=430

Asymmetric tubular CaTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3-δ membranes: Membrane architecture and long-term stability

Authors Wen Xing, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Zuoan Li, Jonathan M. Polfus, Yngve Larring, Christelle Denonville, Emmanuel Nonnet, Adam Stevenson, Partow P. Henriksen, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 548, Pages: 372-379
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract Three architectures of asymmetric tubular oxygen transport membranes (OTM) based on CaTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3-δ were fabricated with various thicknesses of the tubular porous supports and the dense membrane layers. This was achieved by a two-step firing method combining water based extrusion and dip-coating. The oxygen flux of the tubular membranes was characterized as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure on both feed and sweep sides for the different architectures. The flux exhibits different functional dependencies with respect to the oxygen partial pressure gradient and the membrane architecture. Numerical simulations using a Dusty-gas model were conducted to evaluate the effect of the porous support microstructure and thickness on oxygen partial pressure gradient inside the porous media. Results from this work were used to establish dependency of the flux with respect to bulk transport properties of the material, surface kinetics and architecture of the porous support. Furthermore, long-term stability of the produced tubular asymmetric membrane operated in CO2-containing atmospheres was assessed over half a year. The membrane exhibited a stable oxygen flux without showing significant flux degradation.
Keywords OTM, Asymmetric tubular membrane, Oxygen flux, CaTiO3, Long-term stability
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.memsci.2017.11.042
Link
ID=429

Three-dimensional printed yttria-stabilized zirconia self-supported electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

Authors
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Additive manufacturing represents a revolution due to its unique capabilities for freeform fabrication of near net shapes with strong reduction of waste material and capital cost. These unfair advantages are especially relevant for expensive and energy-demanding manufacturing processes of advanced ceramics such as Yttria-stabilized Zirconia, the state-of-the-art electrolyte in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell applications. In this study, self-supported electrolytes of yttria-stabilized zirconia have been printed by using a stereolithography three-dimensional printer. Printed electrolytes and complete cells fabricated with cathode and anode layers of lanthanum strontium manganite- and nickel oxide-yttria-stabilized zirconia composites, respectively, were electrochemical characterized showing full functionality. In addition, more complex configurations of the electrolyte have been printed yielding an increase of the performance entirely based on geometrical aspects. Complementary, a numerical model has been developed and validated as predictive tool for designing more advanced configurations that will enable highly performing and fully customized devices in the next future.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell, 3D printing, Stereolithography, Yttria-stabilized zirconia, Electrolyte
Remark Available online 15 November 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.11.033
Link
ID=428

Characteristics of LaCo0.4Ni0.6-xCuxO3-δ ceramics as a cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Yi-XinLiu, Sea-Fue Wang,Yung-Fu Hsu, Hung-Wei Kai, Piotr Jasinski
Source
Journal of the European Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract In this study, the effects of Cu-ion substitution on the densification, microstructure, and physical properties of LaCo0.4Ni0.6-xCuxO3-δ ceramics were investigated. The results indicate that doping with Cu ions not only enhances the densification but also promotes the grain growth of LaCo0.4Ni0.6-xCuxO3-δ ceramics. The Cu substitution at x ≤ 0.2 can suppress the formation of La4Ni3O10, while the excess Cu triggers the formation of La2CuO4.032 phase. The p-type conduction of LaCo0.4Ni0.6O3-δ ceramic was significantly raised by Cu substitution because the acceptor doping () triggered the formation of hole carriers; this effect was maximized in the case of LaCo0.4Ni0.4Cu0.2O3-δ composition (1480 S cm−1 at 500 °C). Thermogravimetric data revealed a slight weight increase of 0.29% for LaCo0.4Ni0.4Cu0.2O3-δ compact up to 871 °C; this is due to the incorporation of oxygen that creates metal vacancies and additional carriers, partially compensating the conductivity loss due to the spin-disorder scattering. As the temperature of the LaCo0.4Ni0.4Cu0.2O3-δ compacts rose above 871 °C, significant weight loss with temperature was observed because of the release of lattice oxygen to the ambient air as a result of Co (IV) thermal reduction accompanied by the formation of oxygen vacancies. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) single cell with Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (electrolyte) and LaCo0.4Ni0.4Cu0.2O3-δ (cathode) was built and characterized. The Ohmic (0.256 Ω cm2) and polarization (0.434 Ω cm2) resistances of the single cell at 700 °C were determined; and the maximum power density was 0.535 W cm−2. These results show that LaCo0.4Ni0.4Cu0.2O3-δ is a very promising cathode material for SOFC applications.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cells, Cell performance, Impedance Cathode
Remark Available online 8 November 2017, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2017.11.019
Link
ID=424

High-temperature properties of (La,Ca)(Fe,Mg,Mo)O3-δ perovskites as prospective electrode materials for symmetrical SOFC

Authors S.Ya.Istomin, A.V.Morozov, M.M.Abdullayev, M.BatukbJ.Hadermann, S.M.Kazakov, A.V.Sobolev, I.A.Presniakov, E.V.Antipov
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 258, Pages: 1-10
Time of Publication: 2018
Abstract La1−yCayFe0.5+x(Mg,Mo)0.5−xO3-δ oxides with the orthorhombic GdFeO3-type perovskite structure have been synthesized at 1573 K. Transmission electron microscopy study for selected samples shows the coexistence of domains of perovskite phases with ordered and disordered B-cations. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies performed at 300 K and 573 K show that while compositions with low Ca-content (La0.55Ca0.45Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ and La0.5Ca0.5Fe0.6Mg0.175Mo0.225O3-δ) are nearly oxygen stoichiometric, La0.2Ca0.8Fe0.5Mg0.2625Mo0.2375O3-δ is oxygen deficient with δ ≈ 0.15. Oxides are stable in reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2, 8%) at 1173 K for 12 h. No additional phases have been observed at XRPD patterns of all studied perovskites and Ce1−xGdxO2−x/2 electrolyte mixtures treated at 1173–1373K, while Fe-rich compositions (x≥0.1) react with Zr1−xYxO2−x/2 electrolyte above 1273 K. Dilatometry studies reveal that all samples show rather low thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) in air of 11.4–12.7 ppm K−1. In reducing atmosphere their TECs were found to increase up to 12.1–15.4 ppm K−1 due to chemical expansion effect. High-temperature electrical conductivity measurements in air and Ar/H2 atmosphere show that the highest conductivity is observed for Fe- and Ca-rich compositions. Moderate values of electrical conductivity and TEC together with stability towards chemical interaction with typical SOFC electrolytes make novel Fe-containing perovskites promising electrode materials for symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell.
Keywords Symmetrical solid oxide fuel cell, Perovskites, Crystal structure, High-temperature electrical conductivity
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2017.10.005
Link
ID=423

New Solid Electrolyte Na9Al(MoO4)6: Structure and Na+ Ion Conductivity

Authors Aleksandra A. Savina, Vladimir A. Morozov, Anton L. Buzlukov, Irina Yu. Arapova, Sergey Yu. Stefanovich, Yana V. Baklanova, Tatiana A. Denisova, Nadezhda I. Medvedeva, Michel Bardet, Joke Hadermann, Bogdan I. Lazoryak, and
Source
Chem. Mater.
Volume: 29, Issue: 20, Pages: 8901–8913
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Solid electrolytes are important materials with a wide range of technological applications. This work reports the crystal structure and electrical properties of a new solid electrolyte Na9Al(MoO4)6. The monoclinic Na9Al(MoO4)6 consists of isolated polyhedral [Al(MoO4)6]9– clusters composed of a central AlO6 octahedron sharing vertices with six MoO4 tetrahedra to form a three-dimensional framework. The AlO6 octahedron also shares edges with one Na1O6 octahedron and two Na2O6 octahedra. Na3–Na5 atoms are located in the framework cavities. The structure is related to that of sodium ion conductor II-Na3Fe2(AsO4)3. High-temperature conductivity measurements revealed that the conductivity (σ) of Na9Al(MoO4)6 at 803 K equals 1.63 × 10–2 S cm–1. The temperature behavior of the 23Na and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and the spin-lattice relaxation rates of the 23Na nuclei indicate the presence of fast Na+ ion diffusion in the studied compound. At T<490 K, diffusion occurs by means of Na+ ion jumps exclusively through the sublattice of Na3–Na5 positions, whereas Na1 and Na2 become involved in the diffusion processes (through chemical exchange with the Na3–Na5 sublattice) only at higher temperatures.
Remark DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.7b03989
Link
ID=422

Alkali and Alkaline Earth Oxoacid Salts; Synthesis, Hydration, Stability, and Electrical Conductivity

Author AA Elstad
Source
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Proton-conducting electrolytes are sough after for use in various applications within the field of electrochemistry. Pure and high proton conductivity has been found in many perovskite-type oxides like BaZrO3 (BZY) and BaCeO3, with BaCeO3-based materials being among the best proton-conducting oxides. In the intermediate temperature range of 400 to 800 C, BZY has been established as one of the most promising materials, exhibiting a protonic conductivity higher than 1  10􀀀2 S cm􀀀1 over the whole temperature range. However, it is difficult to process, and the resulting materials are usually grainy and possess highly resistive grain-boundaries [1]. For low-temperature regions, compounds like CsHSO4 and CsH2PO4 show great potential with respect to protonic conductivity, even displaying superprotonic transitions that immensely increase their conductivity, however their stability is lacking with respect to temperature and solubility in water [2]. With this project, the aim is to broaden the horizon and investigate compounds that fall outside the common perovskite-definition. In this work, various solid acids (E.g. KBaPO4, NaCaHSiO4 and BaH2SiO4), in which the cations are alkali and alkaline earth metals and the anionic groups are separated XO4 tetrahedra, are synthesized and subsequently characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), as well as electrical characterization by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The work on KBaPO4 culminated in a submitted paper [3]. KBaPO4 has been proposed to transform into a great protonic conductor upon hydration at low temperatures. Effectively, hydration through steam at 80 C is said to give the compound a protonic conductivity of 1  10􀀀2 S cm􀀀1 just below 100 C [4]. This is a remarkable result and, if it can be reproduced, it can become a viable rival to BZY. For this reason, KBaPO4 was chosen as a topic for this work. Here, we synthesize KBaPO4 through a high-temperature solid state reaction, and subsequently characterize the system with respect to thermal stability and its inherent electrical conductivity. Through electrical measurements, we found that the conductivity of pure KBaPO4 was very low, around 2  10􀀀6 S cm􀀀1 at 600 C, with an activation energy exceeding 1 eV. The compound is indifferent to the presence of humidity, and results indicate that the charge carrier in the compound is not protonic, but rather it is theorized to be potassium ions, with potassium Frenkel defects being the predominating defect, however this has not been explicitly confirmed. All in all, we propose a defect model for KBaPO4 with Frenkel defects as the predominating defects. Through attempts at hydrating KBaPO4 in accordance to the method proposed by Goodenough, we found that it does not transform into a high-conductivity phase, but rather decomposes into potassium doped Ba3(PO4)2, and that the resulting system shows similar properties, such as thermal stability (Decomposing at 300 C) and protonic conductivity (1:6  10􀀀6 S cm􀀀1 at 250 C), to the system Ba3-xKxHx(PO4)2 previously investigated by Haile et al. [5], albeit with a significantly lower potassium content than the systems they have characterized, possibly indicating that a saturation of K in Ba3(PO4)2 has been reached. By subsequently heating Ba3-xKxHx(PO4)2 to high temperatures, the system is found to expel potassium and form a two-phase system of Ba3(PO4)2 and a secondary phase of KBaPO4, showing similarities to the system Ba3(1-x)K3x(PO4)2-x previously investigated by Iwahara et al. [6]. Through impedance spectroscopy of said system, we found evidence that points toward the system being a protonic conductor, with a bulk conductivity slightly higher than 1  10􀀀3 S cm􀀀1 at 600 C, and an activation energy of around 0:67 eV. This is one order of magnitude higher than the one previously reported by Iwahara et al., and only one order of magnitude lower than that of BaZrO3. Parallelly, NaCaHSiO4 and related compounds ABHXO4 (A􀀀􀀀 Li, Na or K. B􀀀􀀀 Ca, Sr or Ba. X􀀀􀀀 Si, Ge or Sn) were synthesized hydrothermally and subsequently characterized. Electrical characterization of NaCaHSiO4 gave low conductivities, although protonic, of 1:8  10􀀀8 S cm􀀀1 at 250 C, with an activation energy of 0:9 eV. Based on the results, we propose a defect model in which interstitial hydroxide ions and interstitial protons str significant defects in the compound. However, although NaCaHSiO4 could be successfully synthesized and subsequently characterized, the other syntheses did not yield the desired results. In fact, the only synthesis that yielded a pure product was that which gave Sr2SiO4, possibly providing a hydrothermal approach to synthesizing a compound previously produced by a hightemperature solid state reaction. Lastly, the compound BaH2SiO4 was synthesized, according to a hydrothermal route, and characterized with respect to thermal stability and electrical conductivity. It was found to exhibit a conductivity of 2:5  10􀀀8 S cm􀀀1 at 200 C with an activation energy of 0:88 eV, comparable to that of NaCaHSiO4. Due to BaH2SiO4 showing similar response to various atmospheres as NaCaHSiO4, a defect model containing hydroxide and hydrogen interstitials is proposed for BaH2SiO4 as well. Compared to earlier reports, a discrepancy was found in that the BaH2SiO4 decomposes prior to temperature regions in which data on electrical conductivity has been previously reported. Another, separate investigation into BaH2SiO4 is therefore recommended.
Remark Thesis for the degree of ’Master of Science’, Depertment of Chemistry, University of Oslo
Link
ID=421

Defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue: 38 Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract BiFeO3 attracts considerable attention for its rich functional properties, including room temperature coexistence of magnetic order and ferroelectricity and more recently, the discovery of conduction pathways along ferroelectric domain walls. Here, insights into the defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3 are obtained by in situ measurements of electrical conductivity, σ, and Seebeck coefficient, α, of undoped, cation-stoichiometric BiFeO3 and acceptor-doped Bi1−xCaxFeO3−δ ceramics as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure pO2. Bi1−xCaxFeO3−δ exhibits p-type conduction; the dependencies of σ and α on pO2 show that Ca dopants are compensated mainly by oxygen vacancies. By contrast, undoped BiFeO3 shows a simultaneous increase of σ and α with increasing pO2, indicating intrinsic behavior with electrons and holes as the main defect species in almost equal concentrations. The pO2-dependency of σ and α cannot be described by a single point defect model but instead, is quantitatively described by a combination of intrinsic and acceptor-doped characteristics attributable to parallel conduction pathways through undoped grains and defect-containing domain walls; both contribute to the total charge transport in BiFeO3. Based on this model, we discuss the charge transport mechanism and carrier mobilities of BiFeO3 and show that several previous experimental findings can readily be explained within the proposed model.
Remark Link
ID=417

On the formation of phases and their influence on the thermal stability and thermoelectric properties of nanostructured zinc antimonide

Authors Priyadarshini Balasubramanian, Manjusha Battabyal, Duraiswamy Sivaprahasam and Raghavan Gopalan
Source
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Volume: 50, Issue: 1 Time of Publication: 2016-11
Abstract To investigate the thermal reliability of the structure and thermoelectric properties of the zinc antimony compounds, undoped (Zn4Sb3) and doped (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05 and Co0.05Zn3.95Sb3) zinc antimonide samples were processed using the powder metallurgy route. It was observed that the as-prepared undoped sample contains a pure β-Zn4Sb3 phase, whereas the doped samples consist of Ω-ZnSb as the major phase and β-Zn4Sb3 as the minor phase. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirms the stability of the β-Zn4Sb3 phase up to 600 K. X-ray diffraction data of the undoped and doped samples show that the nanocrystallinity of the as-prepared samples is retained after one thermal cycle. The thermal bandgap, thermopower and thermal conductivity are not affected by the thermal cycle for the doped samples. A maximum power factor of 0.6 mW m−1 K−2 was achieved in the Sn-doped sample (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05). This is enhanced to 0.72 mW m−1 K−2 after one thermal cycle at 650 K under Ar atmosphere and slightly decreases after the third thermal cycle. In the case of the Co-doped sample (Co0.05Zn3.95Sb3), the power factor increases from 0.4 mW m−1 K−2 to 0.7 mW m−1 K−2 after the third thermal cycle. A figure of merit of ~0.3 is achieved at 573 K in the Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05 sample. The results from the nanoindentation experiment show that Youngs modulus of the Sn-doped sample (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05) after the thermal cycle is enhanced (96 GPa) compared to the as-prepared sample (~76 GPa). These important findings on the thermal stability of the thermoelectric and mechanical properties of Sn-doped samples (Zn4Sb2.95Sn0.05) confirm that Sn-doped zinc antimonide samples can be used as efficient thermoelectric materials for device applications.
Keywords Seebsys
Remark Link
ID=414

Study of novel proton conductors for high temperature Solid Oxide Cells

Author Anastasia Iakovleva
Source
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The main objective of the present work was the systematic study of several groups of materials: Gd3-xMexGaO6-δ (Me = Ca2+, Sr2+), Ba2Y1+xNb1-xO6-δ , and BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ (BZY15) as proton conductors. We developed a synthesis route for each group of materials such as microwave- assisted citric acid combustion method, freezedrying synthesis and modified citrate-EDTA complexing method. Pure nanopowders and dense ceramics were obtained after these syntheses plus a classical sintering process. The structure and composition of the obtained products were characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The temperature dependences of the conductivity were investigated by impedance spectroscopy as a function of pO2 and pH2O. For the family of Gd3-xMexGaO6-δ (Me = Ca2+, Sr2+), we studied the influence of dopant nature and content on the structural and electrical properties. Results indicate that the substitution possible till 10 % of doping content. According to the SEM observations, the grain size is increased with increasing dopant content. Concerning electrical properties, we found an increase of conduction with increasing dopant content. All compounds present a good stability in humid, hydrogen and CO2 containing atmosphere. In case of Ba2Y1+xNb1-xO6-δ materials, the physico-chemical properties of synthesized materials have been characterized by the XRD and SEM techniques. The average grain size increased significantly with increasing amount of Y3+. Conduction properties were slightly improved with the partial substitution of niobium by yttrium. The stability of Ba2Y1+xNb1-xO6-δ compounds was investigated under different atmospheres and conditions. The ionic conduction in this case is quite low, which has been explained by futher molecular dynamics simulations. Finally, we studied the influence of an ZnO and NiO additives on the sintering of BZY15, being these sintering aids used to lower the sintering temperature. Zinc oxide as a sintering aid lowers the sintering temperature by 300 °C and slightly increases the bulk and total conductivity of BZY15.
Remark THESE DE DOCTORAT
ID=412

Stability and range of the type II Bi1 − xWxO1.5 + 1.5x solid solution

Authors Julia Wind, Paula Kayser, Zhaoming Zhang, Ivana Radosavljevic Evansc, Chris D.Ling
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 308, Pages: 173-180
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract We have established the stability and range of the cubic type II phase of Bi1 − xWxO1.5 + 1.5x using a combination of X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Type II is a high temperature modification that can be obtained by quenching/rapid cooling of samples with compositions between x = 0.148 to x = 0.185. Slower cooling rates yield the stable low temperature polymorph, the tetragonal type Ib phase (Bi rich samples), and mixtures of type Ib and Aurivillius phase (W-rich samples). Throughout the entire solid solution range, type II exhibits a (3 + 3) dimensional incommensurate modulation with modulation vectors slightly smaller than 1/3 based on a cubic fluorite type subcell (δ-Bi2O3). The main structural motifs are well-defined tetrahedra of WO6 octahedra in a δ-Bi2O3-matrix, with additional W being incorporated on corners and face centers of the approximate commensurate 3 × 3 × 3 supercell in octahedral coordination, confirmed by XANES analysis of the W L3-edge. Impedance measurements reveal oxide ionic conductivities comparable to those of yttria-stabilised zirconia even after a decrease in ionic conductivity of about half an order of magnitude on thermal cycling due to transition to the tetragonal type Ib phase.
Keywords Oxide ionic conductors, Solid solution, Bismuth oxide, Incommensurately modulated structures, Neutron diffraction, XANES
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.07.015
Link
ID=411

High performance novel gadolinium doped ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia/nickel layered and hybrid thin film anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 363, Pages: 251-259
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Magnetron sputtering under oblique angle deposition was used to produce Ni-containing ultra thin film anodes comprising alternating layers of gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of either 200 nm or 1000 nm thickness. The evolution of film structure from initial deposition, through calcination and final reduction was examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and TOF-SIMS. After subsequent fuel cell usage, the porous columnar architecture of the two-component layered thin film anodes was maintained and their resistance to delamination from the underlying YSZ electrolyte was superior to that of corresponding single component Ni-YSZ and Ni-GDC thin films. Moreover, the fuel cell performance of the 200 nm layered anodes compared favorably with conventional commercially available thick anodes. The observed dependence of fuel cell performance on individual layer thicknesses prompted study of equivalent but more easily fabricated hybrid anodes consisting of simultaneously deposited Ni-GDC and Ni-YSZ, which procedure resulted in exceptionally intimate mixing and interaction of the components. The hybrids exhibited very unusual and favorable IV characteristics, along with exceptionally high power densities at high currents. Their discovery is the principal contribution of the present work.
Keywords Magnetron sputtering, Oblique angle deposition, Thin film anodes, Layered and hybrid structures, SOFC
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.085
Link
ID=410

Relating defect chemistry and electronic transport in the double perovskite Ba1−xGd0.8La0.2+xCo2O6−δ (BGLC)

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Volume: 5, Pages: 15743-15751
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Rare earth double perovskites comprise a class of functional oxides with interesting physiochemical properties both for low- and high-temperature applications. However, little can be found relating electrical properties with equilibrium thermodynamics of non-stoichiometry and defects. In the present work, a comprehensive and generally applicable defect chemical model is developed to form the link between the defect chemistry and electronic structure of partially substituted BGLC (Ba1−xGd0.8La0.2+xCo2O6−δ, 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5). The equilibrium oxygen content of 4 different compositions is determined as a function of pO2 and temperature by thermogravimetric analysis, and combined with defect chemical modelling to obtain defect concentrations and thermodynamic parameters. Oxidation enthalpies determined by TG-DSC become increasingly exothermic (−50 to −120 kJ mol−1) with increased temperature and oxygen non-stoichiometry for all compositions, in excellent agreement with the thermodynamic parameters obtained from the defect chemical model. All compositions display high electrical conductivities (500 to 1000 S cm−1) with shallow pO2-dependencies and small and positive Seebeck coefficients (3 to 15 μV K−1), indicating high degree of degeneracy of the electronic charge carriers. The complex electrical properties of BGLC at elevated temperatures is rationalized by a two-band conduction model where highly mobile p-type charge carriers are transported within the valence band, whereas less mobile “n-type” charge carriers are located in narrow Co 3d band.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C7TA02659E
Link
ID=409

Formation of NiO/YSZ functional anode layers of solid oxide fuel cells by magnetron sputtering

Authors I.V. Ionov, A.A. Solov&#8217;ev, A.M. Lebedinskii, A.V. Shipilova, E.A. Smolyanskii, A N. Koval&#8217;chuk, A.L. Lauk
Source
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume: 53, Issue: 6, Pages: 670–676
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The decrease in the polarization resistance of the anode of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to the formation of an additional NiO/(ZrO2 + 10 mol % Y2O3) (YSZ) functional layer was studied. NiO/YSZ films with different NiO contents were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering of Ni and Zr–Y targets. The elemental and phase composition of the films was adjusted by regulating oxygen flow rate during the sputtering. The resulting films were studied by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. Comparative tests of planar SOFCs with a NiO/YSZ anode support, NiO/YSZ functional nanostructured anode layer, YSZ electrolyte, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF/CGO) cathode were performed. It was shown that the formation of a NiO/YSZ functional nanostructured anode leads to a 15–25% increase in the maximum power density of fuel cells in the working temperature range 500–800°C. The NiO/YSZ nanostructured anode layers lead not only to a reduction of the polarization resistance of the anode, but also to the formation of denser electrolyte films during subsequent magnetron sputtering of electrolyte.
Keywords SOFC, magnetron sputtering, nanostructured electrode, thin-film anode, polarization resistance
Remark Link
ID=408

Tailoring the electrode-electrolyte interface of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) by laser micro-patterning to improve their electrochemical performance

Authors J.A.Cebollero, R.Lahoz, M.A.Laguna-Bercero, A.Larrea
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 360, Pages: 336-344
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Cathode activation polarisation is one of the main contributions to the losses of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell. To reduce this loss we use a pulsed laser to modify the surface of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes to make a corrugated micro-patterning in the mesoscale. The beam of the laser source, 5 ns pulse width and emitting at λ = 532 nm (green region), is computer-controlled to engrave the selected micro-pattern on the electrolyte surface. Several laser scanning procedures and geometries have been tested. Finally, we engrave a square array with 28 μm of lattice parameter and 7 μm in depth on YSZ plates. With these plates we prepare LSM-YSZ/YSZ/LSM-YSZ symmetrical cells (LSM: La1-xSrxMnO3) and determine their activation polarisation by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). To get good electrode-electrolyte contact after sintering it is necessary to use pressure-assisted sintering with low loads (about 5 kPa), which do not modify the electrode microstructure. The decrease in polarisation with respect to an unprocessed cell is about 30%. EIS analysis confirms that the reason for this decrease is an improvement in the activation processes at the electrode-electrolyte interface.
Keywords SOFC, Laser machining, Corrugated surface, Electrode polarisation, Cathode activation, Electrode/electrolyte interface
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.05.106
Link
ID=406

High conductive (LiNaK)2CO3Ce0.85Sm0.15O2 electrolyte compositions for IT-SOFC applications

Authors Ieeba Khan, Muhammad Imran Asghar, Peter D.Lund, Suddhasatwa Basu
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 42, Issue: 32, Pages: 20904-20909
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Composite electrolytes of lithium, sodium, and potassium carbonate ((LiNaK)2CO3), and samarium doped ceria (SDC) have been synthesized and the carbonate content optimized to study conductivity and its performance in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (IT-SOFC). Electrolyte compositions of 20, 25, 30, 35, 45 wt% (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC are fabricated and the physical and electrochemical characterization is carried out using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscope, and current–voltage measurements. The ionic conductivity of (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC electrolytes increases with increasing carbonate content. The best ionic conductivity is obtained for 45 wt% (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC composite electrolyte (0.72 S cm−1 at 600 °C) followed by the 35 wt% (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC composite electrolyte (0.55 S cm−1 at 600 °C). The symmetrical cell of the 35 wt% (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC composite electrolyte with lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) electrode in air gives an area specific resistance of 0.155 Ω cm2 at 500 °C. The maximum power density of the fuel cell using 35 wt% (LiNaK)2CO3–SDC composite electrolyte, composite NiO anode and composite LSCF cathode is found to be 801 mW cm−2 at 550 °C.
Keywords IT-SOFC, Ternary carbonate&#8211;SDC electrolyte, Carbonate loading, Composite electrolytes
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.05.152
Link
ID=405

Mixed ionic–electronic conduction in K1/2Bi1/2TiO3

Authors Linhao Li, Ming Li, Ian M. Reaney and Derek C. Sinclair
Source
J. Mater. Chem. C
Volume: 5, Pages: 6300-6310
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Recently, it has been reported that the Pb-free piezoelectric perovskite Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) can be compositionally tuned by close control of the A-site starting stoichiometry to exhibit high levels of oxide-ion conduction. The related K1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (KBT) perovskite has also drawn considerable interest as a promising Pb-free piezoelectric material; however, its conduction properties have been less extensively investigated. Here we report on the influence of the K/Bi ratio in the starting composition on the electrical properties using a combination of impedance spectroscopy and ion-transport property measurements. KBT ceramics exhibit mixed ionic–electronic (oxide-ion) conduction with tion ∼ 0.5 at 600–800 °C and although variations in the A-site starting stoichiometry can create a ∼1 order of magnitude difference in the bulk conductivity at >500 °C, the conductivity is low (ca. 0.1 to 1 mS cm−1 at 700 °C) and the activation energy for bulk conduction remains in the range ∼1.2 to 1.5 eV. The high temperature electrical transport properties of KBT are therefore much less sensitive to the starting A-site stoichiometry as compared to NBT. However, KBT ceramics exhibit non-negligible proton conduction at lower temperatures (<300 °C). For K/Bi ≥ 1 the total conductivity of KBT ceramics at room temperature can be as high as ∼0.1 mS cm−1 under wet atmospheric conditions. This study demonstrates ionic conduction to be a common feature in A1/2Bi1/2TiO3 perovskites, where A = Na, K.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C7TC01786C
Link
ID=400

Electrochemical performance of Co3O4/CeO2 electrodes in H2S/H2O atmospheres in a proton-conducting ceramic symmetrical cell with BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3 solid electrolyte

Authors
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The electrochemical performance of Co3O4/CeO2 mixed oxide materials as electrodes, when exposed to H2S/H2O atmospheres, was examined employing a proton conducting symmetrical cell, with BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3 (BZCY72) as the solid electrolyte. The impact of temperature (700–850 °C) and H2S concentration (0–1 v/v%) in steam-rich atmospheres (90 v/v% H2O) on the overall cell performance was thoroughly assessed by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) studies. The performance of the Co3O4/CeO2 electrode was significantly enhanced by increasing the H2S concentration and temperature. The obtained results were interpreted on the basis of EIS results and physicochemical characterization (XRD, SEM) studies of fresh and used electrodes. Notably, it was found that the mass transport processes, mainly associated with the adsorption and diffusion of the intermediate species resulting by the chemical and half-cell reactions taking place during cell operation, dominate the electrode polarization resistance compared with the charge transfer processes. Upon increasing temperature and H2S concentration, the electrode resistance is substantially lowered, due to the in situ activation and morphological modifications of the electrode, induced by its interaction with the reactants (H2S/H2O) and products (H2/SO2) mixtures.
Keywords H2S-tolerant electrodes; Cobalt-ceria oxides; BZCY72
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.04.010
Link
ID=397

Development of novel metal-supported proton ceramic electrolyser cell with thin film BZY15–Ni electrode and BZY15 electrolyte

Authors
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 42, Issue: 19, Pages: 13454–13462
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Metal supports for planar MS-PCEC were manufactured using tape-casting of low-cost ferritic stainless steel. A coating protecting the metal support against oxidation was applied by vacuum infiltration and a buffer layer of La0.5Sr0.5Ti0.75Ni0.25O3–δ (LSTN) was further deposited to smoothen the surface. The BaZr0.85Y0.15O3–δ–NiO (BZY15–NiO) cathode and the BaZr0.85Y0.15O3–δ (BZY15) electrolyte were applied by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at elevated substrate temperatures (at 700 °C and 600 °C, respectively). The main challenges are related to the restrictions in sintering temperature and atmosphere induced by the metal support, as well as strict demands on the roughness of substrates used for PLD. Reduction treatment of the half cells confirmed that NiO in the BZY15–NiO layer was reduced to Ni, resulting in increased porosity of the BZY15–Ni cathode, while keeping the columnar and dense microstructure of the BZY15 electrolyte. Initial electrochemical testing with a Pt anode showed a total resistance of 40 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C. Through this work important advances in using metal supports and thin films in planar PCEC assemblies have been made.
Keywords Proton ceramic electrolyser cell (PCEC); Tape casting; Thin film deposition; Metal supports
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2017.03.028
Link
ID=394

Magnetron-sputtered La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 nanocomposite interlayer for solid oxide fuel cells

Authors A. A. Solovyev, I. V. Ionov, A. V. Shipilova, A. N. Kovalchuk, M. S. Syrtanov
Source
Journal of Nanoparticle Research
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract A thin layer of a La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) is deposited between the electrolyte and the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3/Ce0.9Gd0.1O2 (LSCF/CGO) cathode layer of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by pulsed magnetron sputtering using an oxide target of LSCF. The films were completely dense and well adherent to the substrate. The effects of annealing in temperature range from 200 to 1000 °C on the crystalline structure of the LSCF films have been studied. The films of nominal thickness, 250–500 nm, are crystalline when annealed at temperatures above 600 °C. The crystalline structure, surface topology, and morphology of the films were determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. To study the electrochemical characteristics of the deposited-film, solid oxide fuel cells using 325-nm LSCF films as interlayer between the electrolyte and the cathode have been fabricated. The LSCF interlayer improves the overall performance of the SOFC by increasing the interfacial area between the electrolyte and cathode. The electrolyte-supported cells with the interlayer have 30% greater, overall power output compared to that achieved with the cells without interlayer. The LSCF interlayer could also act as a transition layer that improves adhesion and relieves both thermal stress and lattice strain between the cathode and the electrolyte. Our results demonstrate that pulsed magnetron sputtering provides a low-temperature synthesis route for realizing ultrathin nanocrystalline LSCF film layers for intermediate- or low-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.
Keywords (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 Magnetron sputtering Nanocomposite Interlayer Solid oxide fuel cells Nanostructured thin films Energy conversion
Remark DOI: 10.1007/s11051-017-3791-0
Link
ID=393

Ferroelectric crystal Ca9Yb(VO4)7 in the series of Ca9R(VO4)7 non-linear optical materials (R = REE, Bi, Y)

Authors Bogdan I. Lazoryak, Sergey M. Aksenov, Sergey Yu. Stefanovich, Nikolai G. Dorbakov, Dmitriy A. Belov, Oksana V. Baryshnikova, Vladimir A. Morozov, Mikhail S. Manylov and Zhoubin Lin
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry C
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The crystal structure, thermal, dielectric and second harmonic generation (SHG), and nonlinear optical activity data for whitlockite-type Ca9Yb(VO4)7 single crystals were obtained on one and the same sample produced by means of the Czochralski method. The crystal structure refinement has revealed that Yb3+ cations substitute for Ca2+ ions only in the M1, M2 and M5 positions of the whitlockite-type structure. Dielectric, differential thermal analysis and SHG data have shown that Ca9Yb(VO4)7 belongs to the family of high-temperature Ca3(VO4)2 ferroelectrics with Curie temperature Tc = 1221 K, where the symmetry changes from R3c to R[3 with combining macron]c. At higher temperatures a previously unknown complementary phase transition is discovered at T2 = 1276 K and is associated with the symmetry change during heating from R[3 with combining macron]c to R[3 with combining macron]m. Unlike other whitlockites, two phase transitions in Ca9Yb(VO4)7 are separated by a broad interval (ΔT = 55 K) which allows one to register two phase transitions by DSC and dielectric measurements. According to the thermal type both transitions are classified as first-order transformations and their structural mechanisms are considered. Inhomogeneity in the cation distribution is argued to have a crucial influence on the optical quality and ferroelectric domain structures of Ca9Yb(VO4)7 and other whitlockite-type laser crystals.
Remark Link
ID=392

Status report on high temperature fuel cells in Poland – Recent advances and achievements

Authors J. Molenda, J. Kupecki, R. Baron, M. Blesznowski, G. Brus, T. Brylewski, M. Bucko, J. Chmielowiec, K. Cwieka, M. Gazda, A. Gil, P. Jasinski, Z. Jaworski, J. Karczewski, M. Kawalec, R. Kluczowski, M. Krauz, F. Krok, B. Lukasik, M. Malys, A. Mazur, A. Miele
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 42, Issue: 7, Pages: 4366–4403
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The paper presents recent advances in Poland in the field of high temperature fuel cells. The achievements in the materials development, manufacturing of advanced cells, new fabrication techniques, modified electrodes and electrolytes and applications are presented. The work of the Polish teams active in the field of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is presented and discussed. The review is oriented towards presenting key achievements in the technology at the scale from microstructure up to a complete power system based on electrochemical fuel oxidation. National efforts are covering wide range of aspects both in the fundamental research and the applied research. The review present the areas of (i) novel materials for SOFC including ZrO2-based electrolytes, CeO2-based electrolytes, Bi2O3 based electrolytes and proton conducting electrolytes, (ii) cathode materials including thermal shock resistant composite cathode material and silver-containing composites, (iii) anode materials, (iv) metallic interconnects for SOFC, (v) novel fabrication techniques, (vi) pilot scale SOFC, including electrolyte supported SOFC (ES-SOFC) and anode supported SOFC (AS-SOFC), (vii) metallic supported SOFC (MS-SOFC), (viii) direct carbon SOFC (DC-SOFC), (ix) selected application of SOFC, (x) advances in MCFC and their applications, (xi) advances in numerical methods for simulation and optimization of electrochemical systems.
Keywords SOFC; MCFC; Experiments; Simulations; Fabrication techniques
Remark https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.087
Link
ID=390

Sm6-xMoO12-δ (x = 0, 0.5) and Sm6WO12 – Mixed electron-proton conducting materials

Authors
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Samarium molybdates Sm6-xMoO12-δ (x = 0, 0.5) and samarium tungstate Sm6WO12 – potential mixed electron-proton conductors have been studied by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, SEM and impedance spectroscopy (in ambient air and in dry and wet air). Solid solutions differing in structure have been obtained in the Sm2O3-MoO3 system at 1600 °C. The samarium molybdate Sm6MoO12 has the fluorite structure (Fm¯3m). The less samarium rich solid solution Sm5.5MoO11.25 crystallizes in a rhombohedral (View the MathML sourceR3¯) structure. The morphotropic transformation is due to the change in the chemical composition of the solid solution with decreasing Sm3 + concentration. The total conductivity of the cubic fluorite phase Sm6MoO12 at 750 °C in air (1.48 × 10− 3 S/cm, Ea = 1.22 eV) is an order of magnitude higher than that of rhombohedral Sm5.5MoO11.25 (2.34 × 10− 4 S/cm, Ea = 1.11 eV). At low temperatures (T < 500 °C), the Arrhenius plot of total conductivity for Sm6MoO12 and Sm5.5MoO11.25 in air deviates from linearity, suggesting that there is a proton contribution to its conductivity at these temperatures, like in the case of the Sm5.4Zr0.6MoO12.3 zirconium-doped molybdate. Below ~ 500 °C, Sm6MoO12 fluorite and fluorite-like Sm6WO12 have identical Arrhenius plots of conductivity in ambient air. The region of dominant proton conductivity is wider for Sm6WO12 than Sm6MoO12, reaching temperatures as high as 750 °С for the former. The absolute values of total conductivity obtained for samarium tungstate and molybdate at 400 °С in wet air are virtually identical and close to 3 × 10− 6 S/cm, which suggests the conductivity of both compounds is dominated by protons at low temperatures and the proton transport numbers are similar.
Keywords Phase transition; Fluorite; Fluorite-like phase; Proton-conducting membranes; Proton conductivity; Electron conductivity
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2017.01.020
Link
ID=388

Co- and Ce/Co-coated ferritic stainless steel as interconnect material for Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors Hannes Falk-Windisch, , Julien Claquesin, Mohammad Sattari, Jan-Erik Svensson, Jan Froitzheim
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 343, Pages: 1-10
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract Chromium species volatilization, oxide scale growth, and electrical scale resistance were studied at 650 and 750 °C for thin metallic Co- and Ce/Co-coated steels intended to be utilized as the interconnect material in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (IT-SOFC). Mass gain was recorded to follow oxidation kinetics, chromium evaporation was measured using the denuder technique and Area Specific Resistance (ASR) measurements were carried out on 500 h pre-exposed samples. The microstructure of thermally grown oxide scales was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM), and Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX). The findings of this study show that a decrease in temperature not only leads to thinner oxide scales and less Cr vaporization but also to a significant change in the chemical composition of the oxide scale. Very low ASR values (below 10 mΩ cm2) were measured for both Co- and Ce/Co-coated steel at 650 and 750 °C, indicating that the observed change in the chemical composition of the Co spinel does not have any noticeable influence on the ASR. Instead it is suggested that the Cr2O3 scale is expected to be the main contributor to the ASR, even at temperatures as low as 650 °C.
Keywords Interconnect; Solid oxide fuel cell; Corrosion; Cr vaporization; Area specific resistance; Coating
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.01.045
Link
ID=387

Characterization of laser-processed thin ceramic membranes for electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells

Authors
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract By laser machining we have prepared thin and self-supported yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes that can be used in electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells for reducing the operation temperature. The membranes, which are supported by thicker areas of the same material, have an active area of ∼20 μm in thickness and up to 8 mm in diameter. Buckling limits the maximum size of the thin areas to below 1 mm, the overall effective active area being formed by multiple thin areas bounded by ribs. Electron Backscattering Diffraction experiments determined that there are not significant strains inside the membranes and that the heat-affected zone is confined to a shallow layer of ∼1–2 μm. The bending strength of the membranes decreases by ∼26% as a result of the surface microcracking produced by the laser machining. The membranes have a roughness of ∼2.5 μm and are coated by a layer of nanoparticles produced by the laser ablation. This coating and small roughness is not detrimental for the cathodic polarization of the cells. Conversely, the cathode polarization resistance decreases ∼5% in the 650–850 °C temperature range.
Keywords SOFC; Solid electrolytes; Laser machining; Self-supporting ceramic membranes
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.12.112
Link
ID=385

The structural and electrical properties of samarium doped ceria films formed by e-beam deposition technique

Authors Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Sm2O3-doped CeO2 (Sm0.15Ce0.85O1.925, SDC) thin films were formed by e-beam evaporation method. Thin films were formed evaporating micro powders (particle size varied from 0.3 to 0.5 μm). The influence of deposition rate on formed thin film structures and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersion spectrometry (EDS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The deposition rate of formed SDC thin films was changed from 2 to 16 Å/s. The electrical properties were investigated as a function of frequency (0.1–106 Hz) at different temperatures (473–873 K). The formed SDC thin ceramic films repeat the crystallographic orientation of the initial powders using different substrates and different deposition rate. It was determined that crystallites size and samarium concentration are decreasing by increasing the deposition rate. The crystallites size decreased from 17.0 nm to 10.4 nm when SDC thin films were deposited on Alloy 600 (Fe-Ni-Cr), and decreased from 13.7 nm to 8.9 nm when were used optical quartz substrate. The best ionic conductivity σtot = 1.66 Sm− 1 at 873 K temperature, activation energy ΔEa = 0.87 eV (σg = 1.66 Sm− 1, σgb = 1.66 Sm− 1) was achieved when 2 Å/s deposition rate was used. The grain size (in the formed SDC thin films) was ~ 83 nm in this case.
Keywords Electron beam deposition; Samarium doped ceria oxide (SDC); Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Ionic conductivity
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.12.003
Link
ID=383

Oxygen ion conductivity in samarium and gadolinium stabilized cerium oxide heterostructures

Authors Marius Zienius, Kristina Bockute, Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Gadolinium (GDC) and samarium (SDC) doped ceria were investigated in terms of multilayer systems, evaporated by e-beam technique on optical quartz, Alloy600 and sapphire substrate. GDC-SDC heterostructures of 1.3 μm thicknesses, composed of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 layers and they were investigated by structural and ionic conductivity techniques. Bragg peaks show nanocrystalline state of Gd and Sm doped ceria thin films. XRD patterns show fluorite type structure with space group Fm3m. The XRD analysis of thin films, deposited on quartz substrate, reveals the increase of (220) peak with increasing number of layers. The decrease of (111) peak is slightly notable, also. Thin film heterostructures have a face-centered cubic cell with the following lattice parameters, such as 5.4180 nm for GDC of and of 5.4245 nm for SDC. The scanning electron microscopy cross sectional analysis of three-layered structure clearly indicates the interfaces of different material. There are no visually distinct discontinuities in higher layer structures (5–7 layers). Total conductivity increases linearly with increasing of temperature, but decreases with the increase of number of layers. The highest total ionic conductivity at 1214 K temperature for SDC and GDC thin monolayers was 1.62 S/m and 1.02 S/m, respectively. The activation energy increases with the increase of number of layer as well.
Keywords Multilayer electrolyte; SDC; GDC; e-Beam deposition
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2016.11.025
Link
ID=382

A multistep model for the kinetic analysis of the impedance spectra of a novel mixed ionic and electronic conducting cathode

Authors A. Donazzi, M. Maestri, G. Groppi
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract A one-dimensional, heterogeneous and dynamic model is applied to kinetically analyze impedance experiments performed on a novel NdBa0.9Co2O5.6 (NBC) MIEC cathode. The model simulates the spectra in the time domain by accounting for the gas diffusion inside the electrode pores, and for the solid state diffusion of oxygen vacancies inside the bulk of the cathodic material. A detailed kinetic scheme is applied to describe the oxygen reduction mechanism, which includes steps for adsorption and desorption, first and second electronation at the gas/electrode interface, and ion transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The kinetic investigation is based on impedance spectra collected on symmetric NBC/GDC/NBC cells, at open circuit voltage, between 550 and 700°C, and 5–100% O2 molar fraction. The vacancies diffusion coefficient and the kinetic parameters of the reaction steps are fitted to describe the data. At the highest temperatures, a sensitivity analysis reveals that the rate determining step is the first electronation of the oxygen adatom, while the second electronation and the interfacial ion transport are kinetically irrelevant. Overall, the model allows to individuate the key parameters for capturing the kinetics of a MIEC cathode.
Keywords EIS; perovskites; kinetics; modeling
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2016.11.072
Link
ID=377

Thermodynamic properties of the Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 nanopowders obtained by hydrothermal synthesis

Authors C.F. Rusti, V. Badilita, A.M. Sofronia, D. Taloi, E.M. Anghel, F. Maxim, C. Hornoiu, C. Munteanu, R.M. Piticescu, S. Tanasescu
Source
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume: 693, Pages: 1000–1010
Time of Publication: 2017
Abstract The paper is devoted to the investigation of the thermodynamic properties of nanostructured Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 perovskite material synthesized by hydrothermal method. The thermodynamic parameters obtained by a couple of measurements in both isothermal and dynamic regimes (drop calorimetry, solid-oxide electromotive force measurements, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry), allow for the investigations of the thermodynamic stability in a large temperature range from room temperature to 1273 K. The influence of the oxygen stoichiometry on the thermodynamic properties was examined using a coulometric titration technique coupled with electromotive force measurements. The results are discussed based on the strong correlation between the thermodynamic parameters and the charge compensation of the material system. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for the microstructure and morphology analyses. The variation of the thermal expansion and electrical conductivity associated with the structural changes has been evidenced by thermomechanical measurements and impedance spectroscopy, respectively. Through a combined analysis of all the results, new features related to the understanding of the strong interplay between the thermodynamic properties, microstructure, thermal expansion and electrical conductivity in the hydrothermally prepared Ba0.75Sr0.25TiO3 perovskite material have been revealed.
Keywords Nanostructured materials; Chemical synthesis; Thermodynamic properties; Electromotive force, EMF; Calorimetry; X-ray diffraction
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2016.09.215
Link
ID=374

Evaluation of La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 protective coating on ferritic stainless steel interconnect for SOFC application

Authors R.K. Lenka, P.K. Patro, Jyothi Sharma, T. Mahata, P.K. Sinha
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Ferritic stainless steel (SS) interconnect used for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell has issues associated with the growth of oxide scale on the surface and evaporation of chromium species to the cathode leading to increase in polarization resistance and hence, overall cell resistance. Protective coating is essentially applied over the SS surface to restrict the above phenomena. In the present investigation, strontium doped lanthanum manganese chromite (LSCM) of composition La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3 has been explored as a possible protective coating material on ferritic SS interconnect surface. For this application, fine LSCM powder was synthesized by solution polymerization method. Terpineol based slurry of LSCM was formulated and used for coating on ferritic SS surface by screen printing. LSCM coated ferritic SS was exposed to moist oxygen at 800 °C for 300 h and area specific resistance (ASR) of the coating was found to be as low as 2.0 mΩ cm2 after exposure. Microstructure of LSCM coating and the chromium oxide film was investigated using SEM and EDS. The results indicate that LSCM can form an effective protective coating on ferritic stainless steel for SOFC interconnect application.
Keywords Interconnect; Protective coating; LSCM; SOFC
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.08.143
Link
ID=373

Solid oxide carbonate composite fuel cells: Size effect on percolation

Authors
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract In the studies of solid oxide carbonate composite fuel cell, percolation behaviour of the two phases was investigated as a function of particle size of the oxide phase. The ratio of amount of samarium doped ceria (SDC; Sm0.2Ce0.8O) to Na2CO3 was varied to determine an optimum ionic conductivity as function of oxide particle size. The roles of both phases in the composite electrolyte were investigated. SDC particles were mixed in different amounts of Na2CO3 to obtain composites with carbonate ratios from 1 wt% to 50 wt%. Micro-structural investigations showed that Na2CO3 phase served as the matrix in the micro-structure gluing the oxide particles together. The lowest and the highest carbonate ratios caused low conductivities in the composite as in these samples the 3D connectivity of both phases were disrupted. Low conductivity at both ends of the mixture composition could be interpreted as none of the components of the composite dominated the ionic conductivity. The highest conductivity was obtained at 10 wt% Na2CO3 amount in the composite electrolyte when nano-sized SDC (5–10 nm) oxide powders were used. Two different particle sizes of SDC powders were used to show that the optimum phase ratio, i.e. percolation of both phases, is function of particle size as well. The conductivity in the composite showed percolation behaviour with respect to the two constituent phases.
Keywords Composite electrolyte; SOFC; Interface; Percolation; Carbonate; Impedance
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.208, in press
Link
ID=369

Nanolayered solid electrolyte (GeSe2)30(Sb2Se3)30(AgI)40/AgI: A new hypothesis for the conductivity mechanism in layered AgI

Authors Yury S. Tveryanovich, Andrei V. Bandura, Svetlana V. Fokina, Evgeny N. Borisov, Robert A. Evarestov
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 294, Pages: 82–89
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Using the laser ablation method, films comprised of alternating layers of AgI and (GeSe2)30(Sb2Se3)30(AgI)40 glass were obtained. Individual layer thickness amounts to 10 ÷ 15 nm, and the total number of layers is about 100. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and film conductivity measurements were carried out during several cycles of heating up to 200 °C and cooling to room temperature. It was established that after three cycles of thermal processing specific lateral conductivity of the film is equal to 0.3 S cm− 1 and conductivity activation energy is equal to 0.07 eV at room temperature. Attempts to explain such a high conductivity value based on XRD results did not yield satisfactory results. However, our first-principle calculations within the density functional theory (DFT) showed that in the free layer composed of four AgI planes a rearrangement occurs, resulting in formation of the stable structure of two silver planes on the inside and two iodine planes on the outside (I–Ag–Ag–I). Rearrangement of similar stack of eight or twelve atomic planes results in formation of two or three I–Ag–Ag–I layers loosely bound to each other, accordingly. This suggests that increase in specific conductivity growth of multilayer film as a consequence of cyclic heating and cooling may be connected with AgI stratification on its boundary with chalcogenide glass and following stabilization of layered phases mentioned above. The existence of an empty space between the layers that is constrained by iodine ion planes should facilitate silver ion diffusion along the layers.
Keywords Glass-composite; Laser-ablation method; Ionic conductivity; AgI polymorphs; DFT calculations
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2016.07.004
Link
ID=368

Tin–Zinc oxide composite ceramics for selective CO sensing

Authors Paul Chesler, Cristian Hornoiu, Susana Mihaiu, Cornel Munteanu, Mariuca Gartner
Source
Ceramics International
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Composite metal oxide gas sensors were intensely studied over the past years having superior performance over their individual oxide components in detecting hazardous gases. A series of pellets with variable amounts of SnO2 (0–50 mol%) was prepared using wet homogenization of the component oxides leading to the composite tin-zinc ceramic system formation. The annealing temperature was set to 1100 °C. The samples containing 2.5 mol% SnO2 and 50 mol% SnO2 were annealed also at 1300 °C, in order to observe/to investigate the influence of the sintering behaviour on CO detection. The sensor materials were morphologically characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The increase in the SnO2 amount in the composite ceramic system leads to higher sample porosity and an improved sensitivity to CO. It was found that SnO2 (50 mol%) - ZnO (50 mol%) sample exhibits excellent sensing response, at a working temperature of 500 °C, for 5 ppm of CO, with a fast response time of approximately 60 s and an average recovery time of 15 min. Sensor selectivity was tested using cross-response to CO, methane and propane. The results indicated that the SnO2 (50 mol%)-ZnO (50 mol%) ceramic compound may be used for selective CO sensing applications.
Keywords SnO2&#8211;ZnO; Composites; Sensors; Selective detection of CO
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.07.102
Link
ID=365

Leaching effect in gadolinia-doped ceria aqueous suspensions for ceramic processes

Authors A. Caldarelli, E. Mercadelli, S. Presto, M. Viviani, A. Sanson
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 326, Issue: 15, Pages: 70–77
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Gadolinium doped ceria (CGO) is a commonly used electrolytic material for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) and for this reason different shaping methods for its deposition are reported in literature. Most of these processes are based on the use of organic-based CGO suspensions, but water-based processes are acquiring increasingly interest for their economical and environmental friendly properties. In this paper we reported how the components of water-based suspension and some unexpected process parameters can deeply affect the functional properties of the final powder. In particular, we observed that CGO powders are strongly affected by ionic leaching induced by furoic acid used as dispersant: the extent of this leaching was related to the dispersant concentration and suspension’s ball-milling-time; the phenomenon was confirmed by ICP-AES analyses on suspensions surnatant. Most importantly, ionic leaching affected the electrical properties of CGO: leached powder showed a higher ionic conductivity as a consequence of a partial removal of Gd ions at the grain boundaries. This work is therefore pointing out that when considering water-based suspensions, it is extremely important to carefully consider all the process parameters, including the organic components of the ceramic suspension, as these could lead to unexpected effects on the properties of the powder, affecting the performance of the final shaped material.
Keywords Gadolinium doped ceria; Water-based suspensions; Furoic acid; Ionic leaching; Electrical conductivity
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.06.069
Link
ID=364

Structural, textural, surface chemistry and sensing properties of mesoporous Pr, Zn modified SnO2–TiO2 powder composites

Authors I. Dascalu, D. Culita, J.M. Calderon-Moreno, P. Osiceanu, C. Hornoiu, M. Anastasescu, S. Somacescu, M. Gartner
Source
Ceramics International
Volume: 43, Issue: 13, Pages: 14992–14998
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Mesoporous Zn and Pr modified SnO2-TiO2 mixed powders (Sn:Ti:Zn:Pr contents 60:20:15:5) have been prepared by a modified sol–gel method involving Tripropylamine (TPA) as chelating agent, TritonX100 as template and Polyvinylpyrrolidone as dispersant and stabilizer, respectively. The obtained gels have been dried at different temperatures and calcined in air at 600 and 800 °C, respectively. Phase identification of the synthesized samples and their evolution with the calcination temperature has been performed by X-ray diffraction. N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms were found to be characteristic for mesoporous materials, showing relatively low values for the specific surface area (15–32 m2 g−1) and nanometric sized pores. In case of the sample calcined at 800 °C, a bimodal pore size distribution can be observed, with maxima at 20 and 60 nm. SEM results demonstrate a porous nanocrystalline morphology stable up to 800 °C. The surface chemistry investigated by XPS reveals the presence of the elements on the surface as well as the oxidation states for the detected elements. At 800 °C a diffusion process of Sn from surface to the subsurface/bulk region accompanied by a segregation of Ti and Zn to the surface is noticed, while Pr content is unchanged. The sensing properties of the prepared powders for CO detection have been tested in the range of 250–2000 ppm and working temperatures of 227–477 °C.
Keywords SnO2; TiO2; Sol&#8211;gel; Mesoporous materials; CO detection
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.06.146
Link
ID=361

Synthesis, characterization and performance of robust poison-resistant ultrathin film yttria stabilized zirconia – nickel anodes for application in solid electrolyte fuel cells

Authors
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 324, Pages: 679–686
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract We report on the synthesis of undoped ∼5 μm YSZ-Ni porous thin films prepared by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering at an oblique angle of incidence. Pre-calcination of the amorphous unmodified precursor layers followed by reduction produces a film consisting of uniformly distributed tilted columnar aggregates having extensive three-phase boundaries and favorable gas diffusion characteristics. Similarly prepared films doped with 1.2 at.% Au are also porous and contain highly dispersed gold present as Ni-Au alloy particles whose surfaces are strongly enriched with Au. With hydrogen as fuel, the performance of the undoped thin film anodes is comparable to that of 10–20 times thicker typical commercial anodes. With a 1:1 steam/carbon feed, the un-doped anode cell current rapidly falls to zero after 60 h. In striking contrast, the initial performance of the Au-doped anode is much higher and remains unaffected after 170 h. Under deliberately harsh conditions the performance of the Au-doped anodes decreases progressively, almost certainly due to carbon deposition. Even so, the cell maintains some activity after 3 days operation in dramatic contrast with the un-doped anode, which stops working after only three hours of use. The implications and possible practical application of these findings are discussed.
Keywords Magnetron sputtering; Oblique angle deposition; Thin film anodes; Carbon-tolerant; SOFC
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.124
Link
ID=359

Thin film YSZ-based limiting current-type oxygen and humidity sensor on thermally oxidized silicon substrates

Author Shunsuke Akasaka
Source
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical
Volume: 236, Pages: 499–505
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract In this paper, we propose a thin film yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ)-based limiting current-type oxygen and humidity sensor. These sensors were fabricated from layers of thin films on thermally oxidized silicon substrates, with the intention of installing such sensors onto microheaters. Sputtered porous Pt cathode are situated beneath the YSZ films, and are designed to provide a gas diffusion layer as well as function as electrodes. The porous Pt layer exhibits good performance as a gas diffusion layer because of its small pore size. Optimized YSZ sputtering growth conditions result in in-plane densification without the presence of cracks. The temperature dependence of the oxygen sensor’s level of limiting current was T −0.5. This result was attributed to the shrinkage of the extremely small pores in the gas diffusion layer. Between 450 and 550 °C, following the application of a voltage of 1.1 V, the time response measurements show a rapid response of a few seconds. The oxygen concentration and water vapor pressure correspond to the level of the limiting current at 1.1 V and 1.8 V, respectively.
Keywords Yttria-stabilized-zirconia; Limiting current; Oxygen sensor; Humidity sensor; Thin film; Silicon substrate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.snb.2016.06.025
Link
ID=356

Controlling mixed conductivity in Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 using A-site non-stoichiometry and Nb-donor doping

Authors Linhao Li, Ming Li, Huairuo Zhang, Ian M. Reaney and Derek C. Sinclair
Source
J. Mater. Chem. C
Volume: 4, Pages: 5779-5786
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Precise control of electronic and/or ionic conductivity in electroceramics is crucial to achieve the desired functional properties as well as to improve manufacturing practices. We recently reported the conventional piezoelectric material Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 (NBT) can be tuned into a novel oxide-ion conductor with an oxide-ion transport number (tion) > 0.9 by creating bismuth and oxygen vacancies. A small Bi-excess in the nominal starting composition (Na0.50Bi0.50+xTiO3+3x/2, x = 0.01) or Nb-donor doping (Na0.50Bi0.50Ti1−yNbyO3+y/2, 0.005 ≤ y ≤ 0.030) can reduce significantly the electrical conductivity to create dielectric behaviour by filling oxygen vacancies and suppressing oxide ion conduction (tion ≤ 0.10). Here we show a further increase in the starting Bi-excess content (0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10) reintroduces significant levels of oxide-ion conductivity and increases tion ∼ 0.4–0.6 to create mixed ionic/electronic behaviour. The switch from insulating to mixed conducting behaviour for x > 0.01 is linked to the presence of Bi-rich secondary phases and we discuss possible explanations for this effect. Mixed conducting behaviour with tion ∼ 0.5–0.6 can also be achieved with lower levels of Nb-doping (y ∼ 0.003) due to incomplete filling of oxygen vacancies without the presence of secondary phases. NBT can now be compositionally tailored to exhibit three types of electrical behaviour; Type I (oxide-ion conductor); Type II (mixed ionic-electronic conductor); Type III (insulator) and these results reveal an approach to fine-tune tion in NBT from near unity to zero. In addition to developing new oxide-ion and now mixed ionic/electronic NBT-based conductors, this flexibility in control of oxygen vacancies allows fine-tuning of both the dielectric/piezoelectric properties and design manufacturing practices for NBT-based multilayer piezoelectric devices.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C6TC01719C
Link
ID=355

Influence of cathode functional layer composition on electrochemical performance of solid oxide fuel cells

Authors
Source
Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract In this work, anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) were tested with a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (8 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2)/gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) (Ce0.9Gd 0.1O1.95) bilayer electrolyte and two lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF) composition as functional cathode layer: La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF 1) and La0.60Sr0.40Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF 2). The functional cathode layers were made of 50 % (w/w) LSCF and 50 % (w/w) GDC. Microstructural characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and power measurements were performed under oxygen and hydrogen atmospheres. The microscopy studies showed that the LSCF 2 functional layer is more uniform and adherent to the electrolyte and the cathode collector than the LSCF 1 functional layer, which has cracks, chips, and lower adhesion. The use of the LSCF 2 layer allowed an approximately 25-fold reduction in ohmic resistance (0.06 Ω cm−2) compared with the LSCF 1 layer (1.5 Ω cm−2). The power measurements showed a considerable increase in the power cell using LSCF 2 (approximately 420 mW cm−2) compared with the power cell using LSCF 1 (approximately 180 mW cm−2).
Keywords SOFC, LSCF, Interface, Electrochemical performance, Cathode, Functional layer
Remark First Online: 20 May 2016. DOI: 10.1007/s10008-016-3241-4
Link
ID=353

Electrochemical Property Assessment of Pr2CuO4 Submicrofiber Cathode for Intermediate-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors
Source
Journal of Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage
Volume: 13, Issue: 1, Pages: 011006
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The Pr2CuO4 (PCO) submicrofiber precursors are prepared by electrospinning technique and the thermo-decomposition procedures are characterized by thermal gravity (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectoscopy (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The fibrous PCO material was formed by sintering the precursors at 900 °C for 5 hrs. The highly porous PCO submicrofiber cathode forms good contact with the Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) electrolyte after heat-treated at 900 °C for 2 hrs. The performance of PCO submicrofiber cathode is comparably studied with the powder counterpart at various temperatures. The porous microstructure of the submicrofiber cathode effectively increases the three-phase boundary (TPB), which promotes the surface oxygen diffusion and/or adsorption process on the cathode. The PCO submicrofiber cathode exhibits an area specific resistance (ASR) of 0.38 Ω cm2 at 700 °C in air, which is 30% less than the PCO powder cathode. The charge transfer process is the rate limiting step of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on the submicrofiber cathode. The maximum power densities of the electrolyte-support single cell PCO|CGO|NiO-CGO reach 149 and 74.5 mW cm−2 at 800 and 700 °C, respectively. The preliminary results indicate that the PCO submicrofiber can be considered as potential cathode for intermediate temperature solid fuel cells (IT-SOFCs).
Remark doi: 10.1115/1.4033526
Link
ID=352

Direct conversion of methane to aromatics in a catalytic co-ionic membrane reactor

Authors
Source
Science
Volume: 353, Issue: 6299, Pages: 563-566
Publisher: American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), ISBN: Print ISSN:0036-8075 Online ISSN:1095-9203, Time of Publication: 2016-08
Abstract Nonoxidative methane dehydroaromatization (MDA: 6CH4 ↔ C6H6 + 9H2) using shape-selective Mo/zeolite catalysts is a key technology for exploitation of stranded natural gas reserves by direct conversion into transportable liquids. However, this reaction faces two major issues: The one-pass conversion is limited by thermodynamics, and the catalyst deactivates quickly through kinetically favored formation of coke. We show that integration of an electrochemical BaZrO3-based membrane exhibiting both proton and oxide ion conductivity into an MDA reactor gives rise to high aromatic yields and improved catalyst stability. These effects originate from the simultaneous extraction of hydrogen and distributed injection of oxide ions along the reactor length. Further, we demonstrate that the electrochemical co-ionic membrane reactor enables high carbon efficiencies (up to 80%) that improve the technoeconomic process viability. Methane gas is expensive to ship. It is usually converted into carbon monoxide and hydrogen and then liquefied. This is economically feasible only on very large scales. Hence, methane produced in small amounts at remote locations is either burned or not extracted. A promising alternative is conversion to benzene and hydrogen with molybdenumzeolite catalysts. Unfortunately, these catalysts deactivate because of carbon buildup; plus, hydrogen has to be removed to drive the reaction forward. Morejudo et al. address both of these problems with a solid-state BaZrO3 membrane reactor that electrochemically removes hydrogen and supplies oxygen to suppress carbon buildup.
Keywords CMR, MDA, catalytic membrane reactor, ZSM-5, MCM-22, FBR, FBR-PolyM, Pd-CMR, Co-ionic CMR, FT, ProboStat CMR base unit (NORECS)
Remark http://science.sciencemag.org/highwire/filestream/682540/field_highwire_adjunct_files/0/Morejudo.SM.pdf
BaZrO3
BaZrO3
Link
ID=351

Magnetron-Sputtered YSZ and CGO Electrolytes for SOFC

Authors A. A. Solovyev , A. V. Shipilova, I. V. Ionov, A. N. Kovalchuk, S. V. Rabotkin, V. O. Oskirko
Source
Journal of Electronic Materials
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Reactive magnetron sputtering has been used for deposition of yttria-stabilized ZrO2 (YSZ) and gadolinium-doped CeO2 (CGO) layers on NiO-YSZ commercial anodes for solid oxide fuel cells. To increase the deposition rate and improve the quality of the sputtered thin oxide films, asymmetric bipolar pulse magnetron sputtering was applied. Three types of anode-supported cells, with single-layer YSZ or CGO and YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte, were prepared and investigated. Optimal thickness of oxide layers was determined experimentally. Based on the electrochemical characteristics of the cells, it is shown that, at lower operating temperatures of 650°C to 700°C, the cells with single-layer CGO electrolyte are most effective. The power density of these fuel cells exceeds that of the cell based on YSZ single-layer electrolyte at the same temperature. Power densities of 650 mW cm−2 and 500 mW cm−2 at 700°C were demonstrated by cells with single-layer YSZ and CGO electrolyte, respectively. Significantly enhanced maximum power density was achieved in a bilayer-electrolyte single cell, as compared with cells with a single electrolyte layer. Maximum power density of 1.25 W cm−2 at 800°C and 1 W cm−2 at 750°C under voltage of 0.7 V were achieved for the YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte cell with YSZ and CGO thickness of about 4 μm and 1.5 μm, respectively. This signifies that the YSZ thin film serves as a blocking layer to prevent electrical current leakage in the CGO layer, leading to the overall enhanced performance. This performance is comparable to the state of the art for cells based on YSZ/CGO bilayer electrolyte.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell CGO YSZ bilayer electrolyte magnetron sputtering pulse electron-beam treatment
Remark Link
ID=350

Characteristics of Cu and Mo-doped Ca3Co4O9−δ cathode materials for use in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Jing-Han Chang, Soofin Cheng, Hsi-Chuan Lu
Source
Ceramics International
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract In this study, Cu and Mo ions were doped in Ca3Co4O9−δ to improve the electrical conductivity and electrochemical behavior of Ca3Co4O9−δ ceramic and the performance of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) single cell based on NiO-SDC/SDC/doped Ca3Co4O9−δ-SDC were examined. Cu substitution in the monoclinic Ca3Co4O9−δ ceramic effectively enhanced the densification, slightly increased the grain size, and triggered the formation of some Ca3Co2O6; however, no second phase was found in porous Mo-doped Ca3Co4O9−δ ceramics even when the sintering temperature reached 1050 °C. Substitution of Cu ions caused slight increase in the Co3+ and Co4+ contents and decrease in the Co2+ content; however, doping with Mo ions showed the opposite trend. Doping the Ca3Co4O9−δ ceramic with a small amount of Cu or Mo increased its electrical conductivity. The maximum electrical conductivity measured was 218.8 S cm−1 for the Ca3Co3.9Cu0.1O9−δ ceramic at 800 °C. The Ca3Co3.9Cu0.1O9−δ ceramic with a coefficient of thermal expansion coefficient of 12.1×10−6 K−1 was chosen as the cathode to build SOFC single cells consisting of a 20 μm SDC electrolyte layer. Without optimizing the microstructure of the cathode or hermetically sealing the cell against the gas, a power density of 0.367 Wcm−2 at 750 °C was achieved, demonstrating that Cu-doped Ca3Co4O9−δ can be used as a potential cathode material for IT-SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Cathode; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark In Press, doi:10.1016/j.ceramint.2016.04.037
Link
ID=349

Synthesis and characterization of robust, mesoporous electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry A
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract The use of mesoporous electrodes in solid oxide cells would lead to a significant enhancement of the performance due to their high surface area and large number of active sites for electrochemical reactions. However, their application in real devices is still hindered by the potential instability of the mesostructure and morphology at high temperatures required for device fabrication and under severe conditions for high-current, long-term operation. Here we report our findings on the preparation and characterization of mesoporous electrodes based on ceria infiltrated with catalysts: an anode consisting of a Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) scaffold infiltrated with Ni and a cathode consisting of an SDC scaffold infiltrated with Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ (SSC). In particular, a doped-zirconia electrolyte supported cell with a mesoporous Ni–SDC anode and a mesoporous SSC–SDC cathode demonstrates an excellent peak power density of 565 mW cm−2 at 750 °C (using humidified hydrogen as the fuel). More importantly, both mesoporous electrodes display remarkable stability, yielding a combined electrode virtual non-degradation for the last 500 hours of the test at a constant current density of 635 mA cm−2 at 750 °C, demonstrating the potential of these mesoporous materials as robust electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells or other high-temperature electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C6TA00321D
Link
ID=347

Structural study and proton conductivity in BaCe0.7Zr0.25−xYxZn0.05O3 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 & 0.25)

Authors Ahmed Afif, Nikdalila Radenahmad, Chee Ming Lim, Mohamad Iskandar Petra, Md. Aminul Islam, Seikh Mohammad Habibur Rahman, Sten Eriksson, Abul Kalam Azad
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has been considered to generate power represented by conductivity. Zinc doped Barium Cerium Zirconium Yttrium oxide (BCZYZn) has been found to offer high protonic conductivity and high stability as being electrolyte for proton-conducting SOFCs. In this study, we report a new series of proton conducting materials, BaCe0.7Zr0.25−xYxZn0.05O3 (x = 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.25). The materials were synthesized by solid state reaction route and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal expansion, particle size and impedance spectroscopy (IS). Rietveld analysis of the XRD data reveal a cubic perovskite structure with Pm-3m space group up to composition x = 0.15. For x = 0.15 and 0.20, the materials have structural phase change to orthorhombic in the Pbnm space group. Scanning electron microscopy images show high density materials. Thermal expansion measurements show that the thermal expansion coefficient is in the range 10.0–11.0 × 10−6/°C. Impedance spectroscopy shows higher ionic conduction under wet condition compared to dry condition. Y content of 25% (BCZYZn25) exhibits highest conductivity of 1.84 × 10−2 S/cm in wet Argon. This study indicated that perovskite electrolyte BCZYZn is promising material for the next generation of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs).
Keywords Proton conductor; Sinterability; Rietveld refinement; Conductivity; SOFC electrolyte
Remark In Press, doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.02.135
Link
ID=344

Optically-transparent and electrically-conductive AgI–AgPO3–WO3 glass fibers

Authors
Source
RSC Advances
Volume: 5, Pages: 40236-40248
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract In this study, we report to our knowledge the first optically-transparent and electrically-conductive optical glass fiber belonging to the system AgI–AgPO3–WO3. The addition of tungsten oxide (WO3) into the phosphate glassy network allowed the adjustment of the glass transition temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, refractive index, optical band edge, and electrical conductivity, which are all very important parameters in view of drawing glass fibers with a desired set of electrical and optical properties. Furthermore, the addition of WO3 can improve considerably glass stability against water and humidity in the environment. AgI–AgPO3–WO3 glass fibers with 15 mol% WO3 showed 2 dB m−1 optical propagation loss from 800 to 950 nm wavelength range, and 10−3 S cm−1 electrical conductivity at 1 MHz AC frequency. Complex impedance spectra and thermal activation energies ranging from 0.15 to 0.30 eV are indicative of a dominant conductivity mechanism being ionic in nature within the range of AC frequencies from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Fibers exhibited higher electrical conductivities than the bulk glasses. Glasses in the AgI–AgPO3–WO3 system can be used for fibers that require a set of adjustable properties pertaining to electrical conductivity, optical transparency, and environmental stability.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5RA00681C
Link
ID=335

Experimental and molecular dynamics study of thermo-physical and transport properties of ThO2-5wt.%CeO2 mixed oxides

Authors P.S. Somayajulu, P.S. Ghosh, J. Banerjee, K.L.N.C. Babu, K.M. Danny, B.P. Mandal, T. Mahata, P. Sengupta, S.K. Sali, A. Arya
Source
Journal of Nuclear Materials
Volume: 467, Issue: 2, Pages: 644–659
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract We have determined the thermo-physical (elastic modulus, specific heat, thermal expansion and thermal conductivity) and transport (ionic conductivity) properties of ThO2-5wt.%CeO2 mixed oxide (MOX) using a combined experimental and theoretical methodology. The specific heat, ionic conductivity and elastic properties of ThO2-5wt.%CeO2 pellets prepared by conventional powder metallurgy (POP) and coated agglomerate pelletization (CAP) routes (sintered in both air and Ar-8%H2 atmosphere) are compared with respect to homogeneity (CeO2 distribution in ThO2 matrix), microstructure, porosity and oxygen to metal ratio. The effects of inhomogeneity and pore distribution on thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of the mixed-oxide pellets are identified. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the Coulomb-Buckingham-Morse-many-body model based interatomic potentials are used to predict elastic properties in the temperature range between 300 and 2000 K and thermodynamic properties, viz., enthalpy increment and specific heats of ThO2. Finally, the thermal expansion coefficient and thermal conductivity of ThO2 and (Th,Ce)O2 mixed-oxides obtained from MD are compared with available experimental results.
Keywords ThO2-5%CeO2 MOX; Specific heat; Ionic conductivity; Temperature dependent elastic properties; Molecular dynamics simulation
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jnucmat.2015.10.053
Link
ID=333

Lithium Polymer Electrolytes Based on Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) for Lithium Polymer Batteries

Authors Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Jin Won Seo andJean-Pierre Locquet
Source
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Volume: 2015, Issue: 32, Pages: 5395–5404
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract We studied a lithium-ion conducting polymer based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) doped with lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (LiTFSI). Self-standing membranes were prepared by the solvent-casting technique with a LiTFSI loading of 0 to 30 wt.-%. The thermogravimetric analysis curves showed that the SO3H groups decompose earlier in the SPEEK–LiTFSI membranes than in pure SPEEK, owing to interactions between the Li+ ions and the SO3H groups. X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry studies showed that the addition of LiTFSI decreased the crystallinity and the glass-transition temperature of the polymer, which revealed the plasticizing effect of the lithium salt on the polymer matrix. The 7Li NMR spectroscopy results showed a single central transition line at around δ = –1.2 ppm, which indicated the presence of free mobile lithium ions. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the membrane showed it to be mechanically stable up to 100 °C, a prerequisite for flexible lithium polymer batteries. The highest room-temperature conductivity in the order of 10–5 S cm–1 was observed for the 20 wt.-% LiTFSI-doped SPEEK membrane, which increased to 5 × 10–4 S cm–1 at 100 °C.
Keywords Lithium batteries;Polymer electrolytes;Dynamic mechanical analysis;Raman spectroscopy;Ion pairs
Remark DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201500649
Link
ID=332

Exceptional hydrogen permeation of all-ceramic composite robust membranes based on BaCe0.65Zr0.20Y0.15O3−δ and Y- or Gd-doped ceria

Authors
Source
Energy Environ. Sci.
Volume: 8, Pages: 3675-3686
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Mixed proton and electron conductor ceramic composites were examined as hydrogen separation membranes at moderate temperatures (higher than 500 °C). In particular, dense ceramic composites of BaCe0.65Zr0.20Y0.15O3−δ (BCZ20Y15) and Ce0.85M0.15O2−δ (M = Y and Gd, hereafter referred to as YDC15 and GDC15), as protonic and electronic conducting phases respectively, were successfully prepared and tested as hydrogen separation membranes. The mixture of these oxides improved both chemical and mechanical stability and increased the electronic conductivity in dual-phase ceramic membranes. The synthetic method and sintering conditions were optimized to obtain dense and crack free symmetric membranes. The addition of ZnO as a sintering aid allowed achieving robust and dense composites with homogeneous grain distribution. The chemical compatibility between the precursors and the influence of membrane composition on electrical properties and H2 permeability performances were thoroughly investigated. The highest permeation flux was attained for the 50 : 50 volume ratio BCZ20Y15–GDC15 membrane when the feed and the sweep sides of the membrane were hydrated, reaching values of 0.27 mL min−1 cm−2 at 755 °C on a 0.65 mm thick membrane sample, currently one of the highest H2 fluxes obtained for bulk mixed protonic–electronic membranes. Increasing the temperature to 1040 °C, increased the hydrogen flux up to 2.40 mL min−1 cm−2 when only the sweep side was hydrated. The H2 separation process is attributed to two cooperative mechanisms, i.e. proton transport through the membrane and H2 production via the water splitting reaction coupled with oxygen ion transport. Moreover, these composite systems demonstrated a very good chemical stability under a CO2-rich atmosphere such as catalytic reactors for hydrogen generation.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5EE01793A
Link
ID=329

Oxygen permeation and creep behavior of Ca1−xSrxTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3−δ (x=0, 0.5) membrane materials

Authors
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 449, Pages: 172–178
Time of Publication: 2016
Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on dense symmetric samples of Ca0.5Sr0.5Ti0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3−δ and compared to CaTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3−δ in order to assess the influence of the perovskite lattice volume on oxygen permeation. Oxygen flux measurements were performed in the temperature range 700–1000 °C and as function of feed side pO2pO2 from 10−2 to 1 bar, and at high pressures up to 4 bar with a pO2pO2 of 3.36 bar. The O2 permeability of the Sr-doped sample was significantly lower than that of the Sr-free sample, amounting to 3.9×10−3 mL min−1 cm−1 at 900 °C for a feed side pO2pO2 of 0.21 bar. The O2 permeability of CaTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3−δ shows little variation with increased feed side pressures and reaches 1.5×10−2 mL min−1 cm−1 at 900 °C for a feed side pO2pO2 of 3.36 bar. This is approximately 1.5 times higher than the O2 permeability with a feed side pO2pO2 of 0.21 bar. Furthermore, in order to assess the applicability of CaTi0.6Fe0.15Mn0.25O3−δ as an oxygen membrane material, creep tests were performed under compressive loads of 30 and 63 MPa, respectively, in air in the temperature range 700–1000 °C; the results indicate a high creep resistance for this class of materials. The measured O2 permeabilities and creep rates are compared with other state-of-the-art membrane materials and their performance for relevant applications is discussed in terms of chemical and mechanical stability.
Keywords Dense ceramic oxygen membrane; Ambipolar transport; Creep; CaTiO3; Calcium titanate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.10.016
Link
ID=320

Protons in piezoelectric langatate; La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14

Authors
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 278, Pages: 275–280
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract This contribution reports the hydration and electrical transport properties of effectively acceptor doped single crystalline and polycrystalline langatate, La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14. The electrical properties are investigated over wide ranges of pH2OpH2O, pD2OpD2O and pO2pO2 in the temperature range 400 to 1000 °C. Acceptor doped langatate is dominated by oxygen vacancies in dry atmospheres and at high temperatures, and by protonic defects in wet atmospheres and at lower temperatures. The corresponding standard hydration enthalpy and entropy are − 90 ± 5 kJ/mol and − 130 ± 5 J/mol K, respectively. Further, all compositions display pure proton conductivity in wet atmospheres below 700 °C with a proton mobility enthalpy in the range of 70–75 kJ/mol, depending on doping level and crystallographic direction. Hence, protons are important for the physiochemical properties of langatate even at 1000 °C, and could therefore influence the behavior of langatate-based resonator devices. The proton conductivity is slightly anisotropic, being higher in the X- and Y- than in the Z-direction. At high temperatures and under dry conditions, electron holes and oxide ions dominate the conductivity, and the enthalpy of mobility of vacancies is 140 ± 5 kJ/mol.
Keywords Langatate; Piezoelectric; Defects; Protons; Conductivity
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2015.06.024
Link
ID=319

Tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47−δ: optimization strategies and transport properties of a new n-type thermoelectric oxide

Authors Christophe P. Heinrich, Matthias Schrade, Giacomo Cerretti, Ingo Lieberwirth, Patrick Leidich, Andreas Schmitz, Harald Fjeld, Eckhard Mueller, Terje G. Finstad, Truls Norby and Wolfgang Tremel
Source
Materials Horizons
Issue: 5, Pages: 519-527
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Engineering of nanoscaled structures may help controlling the electrical and thermal transport in solids, in particular for thermoelectric applications that require the combination of low thermal conductivity and low electrical resistivity. The tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47 (TTB) allow a continuous variation of the charge carrier concentration while fulfilling at the same time the concept of a “phonon-glass electron-crystal” through a layered nanostructure defined by intrinsic crystallographic shear planes. The thermoelectric properties of the tetragonal tungsten bronzes Nb8−xW9+xO47−δ (0 < x < 2) were studied in the temperature range from 373 to 973 K. Structural defects and the thermal stability under various oxygen partial pressure pO2 were investigated by means of thermogravimetry, HR-TEM, and XRD. Nb8W9O47−δ was found stable at 973 K and a pO2 of ≈10−15 atm. The oxygen nonstoichiometry δ can reach up to 0.3, depending on the applied atmosphere. By increasing the substitution level x, the electrical resistivity ρ and the Seebeck coefficient S decreased. For x = 2, ρ reached 20 mΩ cm at 973 K, combined with a Seebeck coefficient of approximately −120 μV K−1. The thermal conductivity was low for all samples, ranging from 1.6 to 2.0 W K−1 m−1, attributed to the complex crystal structure. The best thermoelectric figure of merit zT of the investigated samples was 0.043, obtained for x = 2 at 973 K, but it is expected to increase significantly upon a further increase of x. The control of the oxygen non-stoichiometry δ opens a second independent optimization strategy for tetragonal tungsten bronzes.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5MH00033E
Link
ID=318

EuBaCo2O5+δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2−δ composite cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells: high electrochemical performance and oxygen reduction kinetics

Authors Zhan Shi, Tian Xia, Fuchang Meng, Jingping Wang, Shengming Wu, Jie Lian, Hui Zhao, Chunbo Xu
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Volume: 174, Pages: 608–614
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The characteristics and electrochemical performance of double perovskite EuBaCo2O5+δ (EBCO) have been investigated as a composite cathode for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). The thermal expansion coefficients can be effectively reduced in the case of EBCO-Ce0.9Gd0.1O2−δ (CGO) composite cathodes. No chemical reactions between EBCO cathode and CGO electrolyte are observed after sintering at 1000 °C for 24 h. The maximum electrical conductivities of EBCO-CGO materials reach 28-77 S cm−1 with the change of CGO weight ratio from 40 wt. % to 5 wt. %. Among all these components, the EBCO-10 wt. % CGO (EBCO-10CGO) composite cathode gives the lowest area-specific resistance of 0.055 and 0.26 Ω cm2 in air at 700 and 600 °C, respectively. The maximum power density of Ni-CGO anode-supported single cell consisted of the EBCO-10CGO composite cathode and CGO electrolyte achieves 0.81 W cm−2 at 700 °C. These results indicate that the EBCO-10CGO composite materials can be used as a promising cathode candidate for IT-SOFCs. Furthermore, the rate-limiting steps for the oxygen reduction reaction at the EBCO-10CGO composite cathode interface are determined to be the charge transfer and dissociation of adsorbed molecule oxygen processes.
Keywords Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells; cathode materials; electrochemical performance; oxygen reduction kinetics
Remark doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2015.06.059
Link
ID=317

Multilayer ceramic capacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 for temperature stable and high energy density capacitor applications

Authors Nitish Kumar, Aleksey Ionin, Troy Ansell, Seongtae Kwon, Wesley Hackenberger and David Cann
Source
Applied Physics Letters
Volume: 106, Pages: 252901
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The need for miniaturization without compromising cost and performance continues to motivate research in advanced capacitor devices. In this report, multilayerceramiccapacitors based on relaxor BaTiO3-Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BZT) were fabricated and characterized. In bulk ceramic embodiments, BT-BZT has been shown to exhibit relative permittivities greater than 1000, high resistivities (ρ > 1 GΩ-cm at 300 °C), and negligible saturation up to fields as high as 150 kV/cm. Multilayercapacitor embodiments were fabricated and found to exhibit similar dielectric and resistivity properties. The energy density for the multilayerceramics reached values of ∼2.8 J/cm3 at room temperature at an applied electric field of ∼330 kV/cm. This represents a significant improvement compared to commercially available multilayercapacitors. The dielectric properties were also found to be stable over a wide range of temperatures with a temperature coefficient of approximately −2000 ppm/K measured from 50 to 350 °C, an important criteria for high temperature applications. Finally, the compatibility of inexpensive Ag-Pd electrodes with these ceramics was also demonstrated, which can have implications on minimizing the device cost.
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4922947
Link
ID=315

Gd- and Pr-based double perovskite cobaltites as oxygen electrodes for proton ceramic fuel cells and electrolyser cells

Authors
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 278, Pages: 120–132
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Double perovskite oxides BaGd0.8La0.2Co2O6−δ (BGLC), BaGdCo1.8Fe0.2O6−δ (BGCF), BaPrCo2O6−δ (BPC) and BaPrCo1.4Fe0.6O6−δ (BPCF) were investigated as oxygen electrodes on mixed conducting BaZr0.7Ce0.2Y0.1O3 (BZCY72) electrolyte using impedance spectroscopy vs temperature, pO2, and pH2O. We propose and have applied a novel approach to extract and parameterise the charge transfer and diffusion impedances of the electrode reactions in a system comprising charge transport of protons, oxide ions, and electrons. Given by the properties of the BZCY72, transport of protons dominates at lower temperatures and high pH2O, oxide ions at higher temperatures, and electron holes increasingly at high temperatures and high pO2. The electrodes showed good performance, with the lowest total apparent polarisation resistance for BGLC/BZCY72 being 0.05 and 10 Ωcm2 at 650 and 350 °C, respectively. The low temperature rate limiting reaction step is a surface related process, involving protonic species, with an activation energy of approximately 50 kJ mol−1 for BGLC/BZCY72. The oxide ion transport taking over at higher temperatures exhibits a higher activation energy typical of SOFC cathodes. Thermogravimetric studies revealed that BGLC exhibits considerable protonation at 300–400 °C, which may be interpreted as hydration with an enthalpy of approximately –50 kJ mol−1. The resulting mixed proton electron conduction may explain its good performance as electrode on BZCY72.
Keywords PCFC; PCEC; P-MIEC; Proton conductor; Mixed conductivity; Double perovskite
Remark doi:10.1016/j.ssi.2015.05.014
Link
ID=313

Praseodymium-deficiency Pr0.94BaCo2O6-δ double perovskite: A promising high performance cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Fuchang Meng, Tian Xia, Jingping Wang, Zhan Shi, Hui Zhao
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 239, Pages: 741–750
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Praseodymium-deficiency Pr0.94BaCo2O6-δ (P0.94BCO) double perovskite has been evaluated as a cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells. X-ray diffraction pattern shows the orthorhombic structure with double lattice parameters from the primitive perovskite cell in Pmmm space group. P0.94BCO has a good chemical compatibility with Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) electrolyte even at 1000 °C for 24 h. It is observed that the Pr-deficiency can introduce the extra oxygen vacancies in P0.94BCO, further enhancing its electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction. P0.94BCO demonstrates the promising cathode performance as evidenced by low polarization are-specific resistance (ASR), e. g. 0.11 Ω cm2 and low cathodic overpotential e. g. −56 mV at a current density of −78 mA cm−2 at 600 °C in air. These features are comparable to those of the benchmark cathode Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ. The fuel cell CGO-Ni|CGO|P0.94BCO presents the attractive peak power density of 1.05 W cm−2 at 600 °C. Furthermore, the oxygen reduction kinetics of P0.94BCO material is also investigated, and the rate-limiting steps for oxygen reduction reaction are determined.
Keywords Intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell; Cathode material; Double perovskite; Electrochemical performance; Oxygen reduction reaction
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.06.007
Link
ID=311

Resistivity Enhancement and Transport Mechanisms in (1 − x)BaTiO3–xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 and (1 − x)SrTiO3–xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3

Author Nitish Kumar* andDavid P. Cann
Source
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Ceramics of composition (1−x)BaTiO3–xBi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 (BT-BZT) were prepared by solid-state synthesis; they have been shown to exhibit excellent properties suited for high-temperature dielectric applications. The X-ray diffraction data showed a single-phase perovskite structure for all the compositions prepared (x ≤ 0.1 BZT). The compositions with less than 0.075 BZT exhibited tetragonal symmetry at room temperature and pseudo-cubic symmetry above it. Most notably, a significant improvement in insulation properties was measured with the addition of BZT. Both low-field AC impedance and high-field direct DC measurements indicated an increase in resistivity of at least two orders of magnitude at 400°C with the addition of just 0.03 BZT (~107 Ω-cm) into the solid solution as compared to pure BT (~105 Ω-cm). This effect was also evident in dielectric loss data, which remained low at higher temperatures as the BZT content increased. In conjunction with band gap measurements, it was also concluded that the conduction mechanism transitioned from extrinsic for pure BT to intrinsic for 0.075 BZT suggesting a change in the fundamental defect equilibrium conditions. It was also shown that this improvement in insulation properties was not limited to BT-BZT, but could also be observed in the paraelectric SrTiO3–BZT system.
Remark DOI: 10.1111/jace.13666, Article first published online
Link
ID=304

FD Electrolysis: Co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 in full-ceramic symmetrical SOECs: A strategy for avoiding the use of Hydrogen as a safe gas

Authors
Source
Faraday Discussions
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract The use of cermets as fuel electrodes for solid oxide electrolysis cells requires permanent circulation of reducing gas, e.g. H2 or CO, so called safe gas, in order to avoid oxidation of the metallic phase. Replacing metallic based electrodes by pure oxides is therefore proposed as an advantage for the industrial application of solid oxide electrolyzers. In this work, full-ceramic symmetrical solid oxide electrolysis cells have been investigated for steam/CO2 co-electrolysis. Electrolyte supported cells with La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5O3-δ reversible electrodes have been fabricated and tested in co-electrolysis mode using different fuel compositions, from pure H2O to pure CO2, at temperatures of 850°C – 900°C. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic measurements have been carried out for the mechanistic understanding of the symmetrical cells performance. The content of H2 and CO in the product gas has been measured by in-line gas micro-chromatography. The effect of employing H2 as a safe gas has been also investigated. Maximum density currents of 750 mA/cm2 and 620 mA/cm2 have been applied at 1.7 V for pure H2O and for H2O:CO2 ratios of 1:1, respectively. Remarkable results were obtained for hydrogen-free fuel compositions, which confirmed the interest of using ceramic oxides as a fuel electrode candidate to reduce or completely avoid the use of safe gas in operation minimizing the contribution of the reverse water shift reaction (RWSR) in the process. H2:CO ratios close to two were obtained for hydrogen-free tests fulfilling the basic requirements for synthetic fuel production. An important increase of the operation voltage was detected under continuous operation leading to a dramatic failure by delamination of the oxygen electrode.
Remark Accepted Manuscript, DOI: 10.1039/C5FD00018A
Link
ID=303

Doping strategies for increased oxygen permeability of CaTiO3 based membranes

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus, Wen Xing, Martin F. Sunding, Sidsel M. Hanetho, Paul Inge Dahl, Yngve Larring, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 482, Pages: 137–143
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements are performed on dense samples of CaTi0.85Fe0.15O3−δ, CaTi0.75Fe0.15Mg0.05O3−δ and CaTi0.75Fe0.15Mn0.10O3−δ in combination with density functional theory (DFT) calculations and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to assess Mg and Mn as dopants for improving the O2 permeability of CaTi1−xFexO3−δ based oxygen separation membranes. The oxygen permeation measurements were carried out at temperatures ranging between 700 and 1000 °C with feed side oxygen partial pressures between 0.01 and 1 bar. The O2 permeability was experimentally found to be highest for the Mn doped sample over the whole temperature range, reaching 4.2×10−3 ml min−1 cm−1 at 900 °C and 0.21 bar O2 in the feed which corresponds to a 40% increase over the Fe-doped sample and similar to reported values for x=0.2. While the O2 permeability of the Mg doped sample was also higher than the Fe-doped sample, it approached that of the Fe-doped sample above 900 °C. According to the DFT calculations, Mn introduces electronic states within the band gap and will predominately exist in the effectively negative charge state, as indicated by XPS measurements. Mn may therefore improve the ionic and electronic conductivity of CTF based membranes. The results are discussed in terms of the limiting species for ambipolar transport and O2 permeability, i.e., oxygen vacancies and electronic charge carriers.
Keywords Dense ceramic oxygen membrane; Ambipolar transport; Mixed ionic-electronic conduction; CaTiO3; Calcium titanate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.02.036
Link
ID=302

Coated stainless steel 441 as interconnect material for solid oxide fuel cells: Evolution of electrical properties

Authors Jan Gustav Grolig , Jan Froitzheim, Jan-Erik Svensson
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 284, Pages: 321–327
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract AISI 441 coated with a double layer coating of 10 nm cerium (inner layer) and 630 nm cobalt was investigated and in addition the uncoated material was exposed for comparison. The main purpose of this investigation was the development of a suitable ASR characterization method. The material was exposed to a simulated cathode atmosphere of air with 3% water at 850 °C and the samples were exposed for up to 1500 h. We compared two methods of ASR measurements, an in-situ method where samples were measured with platinum electrodes for longer exposure times and an ex-situ method where pre-oxidized samples were measured for only very short measurement times. It was found that the ASR of ex-situ characterized samples could be linked to the mass gain and the electrical properties could be linked to the evolving microstructure during the different stages of exposure. Both the degradation of the electric performance and the oxygen uptake (mass gain) followed similar trends. After about 1500 h of exposure an ASR value of about 15 mΩcm2 was reached. The in-situ measured samples suffered from severe corrosion attack during measurement. After only 500 h of exposure already a value of 35 mΩcm2 was obtained.
Keywords ASR; Interconnect; AISI 441; SOFC; Corrosion; Platinum
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.03.029
Link
ID=300

Electrical conductivity and thermopower of (1 − x) BiFeO3 – xBi0.5K0.5TiO3 (x = 0.1, 0.2) ceramics near the ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition

Authors E. T. Wefring, M.-A. Einarsrud and T. Grande
Source
Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Volume: 17, Issue: 14, Pages: 9420-9428
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Ferroelectric BiFeO3 has attractive properties such as high strain and polarization, but a wide range of applications of bulk BiFeO3 are hindered due to high leakage currents and a high coercive electric field. Here, we report on the thermal behaviour of the electrical conductivity and thermopower of BiFeO3 substituted with 10 and 20 mol% Bi0.5K0.5TiO3. A change from p-type to n-type conductivity in these semi-conducting materials was demonstrated by the change in the sign of the Seebeck coefficient and the change in the slope of the isothermal conductivity versus partial pressure of O. A minimum in the isothermal conductivity was observed at [similar]10−2 bar O2 partial pressure for both solid solutions. The strong dependence of the conductivity on the partial pressure of O2 was rationalized by a point defect model describing qualitatively the conductivity involving oxidation/reduction of Fe3+, the dominating oxidation state of Fe in stoichiometric BiFeO3. The ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition of 80 and 90 mol% BiFeO3 was observed at 648 ± 15 and 723 ± 15 °C respectively by differential thermal analysis and confirmed by dielectric spectroscopy and high temperature powder X-ray diffraction.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C5CP00266D
Link
ID=297

Solid oxide fuel cells with (La,Sr)(Ga,Mg)O3-δ electrolyte film deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, His-Chuan Lu, Yung-Fu Hsu, Yi-Xuan Hu
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 281, Pages: 258–264
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract In this study, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) containing a high quality La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) film deposited on anode supported substrate using RF magnetron sputtering are successfully prepared. The anode substrate is composed of two functional NiO/Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) composite layers with ratios of 60/40 wt% and 50/50 wt% and a current collector layer of pure NiO. The as-deposited LSGM film appears to be amorphous in nature. After post-annealing at 1000 °C, a uniform and dense polycrystalline film with a composition of La0.87Sr0.13Ga0.85Mg0.15O3-δ and a thickness of 3.8 μm is obtained, which was well adhered to the anode substrate. A composite LSGM/La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) layer, with a ratio of 30/70 wt%, is used as the cathode. The SOFC prepared reveals a good mechanical integrity with no sign of cracking, delamination, or discontinuity among the interfaces. The total cell resistance of a single cell with LSGM electrolyte film declines from 0.60 to 0.10 Ω cm2 as the temperature escalates from 600 to 800 °C and the open circuit voltage (OCV) ranges from 0.85 to 0.95 V. The maximum power density (MPD) of the single cell is reported as 0.65, 1.02, 1.30, 1.42, and 1.38 W cm−2 at 600, 650, 700, 750, and 800 °C, respectively. The good cell performance leads to the conclusion that RF magnetron sputtering is a feasible deposition method for preparing good quality LSGM films in SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Sputtering; Electrolyte; Doped lanthanum gallate
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.01.185
Link
ID=295

Binder Jetting: A Novel Solid Oxide Fuel-Cell Fabrication Process and Evaluation

Authors Guha Manogharan, Meshack Kioko, Clovis Linkous
Source
JOM
Volume: 67, Issue: 3, Pages: 660-667
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract With an ever-growing concern to find a more efficient and less polluting means of producing electricity, fuel cells have constantly been of great interest. Fuel cells electrochemically convert chemical energy directly into electricity and heat without resorting to combustion/mechanical cycling. This article studies the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), which is a high-temperature (100°C to 1000°C) ceramic cell made from all solid-state components and can operate under a wide range of fuel sources such as hydrogen, methanol, gasoline, diesel, and gasified coal. Traditionally, SOFCs are fabricated using processes such as tape casting, calendaring, extrusion, and warm pressing for substrate support, followed by screen printing, slurry coating, spray techniques, vapor deposition, and sputter techniques, which have limited control in substrate microstructure. In this article, the feasibility of engineering the porosity and configuration of an SOFC via an additive manufacturing (AM) method known as binder jet printing was explored. The anode, cathode and oxygen ion-conducting electrolyte layers were fabricated through AM sequentially as a complete fuel cell unit. The cell performance was measured in two modes: (I) as an electrolytic oxygen pump and (II) as a galvanic electricity generator using hydrogen gas as the fuel. An analysis on influence of porosity was performed through SEM studies and permeability testing. An additional study on fuel cell material composition was conducted to verify the effects of binder jetting through SEM–EDS. Electrical discharge of the AM fabricated SOFC and nonlinearity of permeability tests show that, with additional work, the porosity of the cell can be modified for optimal performance at operating flow and temperature conditions.
Remark DOI 10.1007/s11837-015-1296-9
Link
ID=294

Hydrogen separation membranes based on dense ceramic composites in the La27W5O55.5–LaCrO3 system

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus, Wen Xing, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Christelle Denonville, Partow P. Henriksen, Rune Bredesen
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 479, Pages: 39–45
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract Some compositions of ceramic hydrogen permeable membranes are promising for integration in high temperature processes such as steam methane reforming due to their high chemical stability in large chemical gradients and CO2 containing atmospheres. In the present work, we investigate the hydrogen permeability of densely sintered ceramic composites (cercer) of two mixed ionic-electronic conductors: La27W3.5Mo1.5O55.5−δ (LWM) containing 30, 40 and 50 wt% La0.87Sr0.13CrO3−δ (LSC). Hydrogen permeation was characterized as a function of temperature, feed side hydrogen partial pressure (0.1–0.9 bar) with wet and dry sweep gas. In order to assess potentially limiting surface kinetics, measurements were also carried out after applying a catalytic Pt-coating to the feed and sweep side surfaces. The apparent hydrogen permeability, with contribution from both H2 permeation and water splitting on the sweep side, was highest for LWM70-LSC30 with both wet and dry sweep gas. The Pt-coating further enhances the apparent H2 permeability, particularly at lower temperatures. The apparent H2 permeability at 700 °C in wet 50% H2 was 1.1×10−3 mL min−1 cm−1 with wet sweep gas, which is higher than for the pure LWM material. The present work demonstrates that designing dual-phase ceramic composites of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is a promising strategy for enhancing the ambipolar conductivity and gas permeability of dense ceramic membranes.
Keywords Hydrogen separation; Dense ceramic membrane; Ceramic&#8211;ceramic composite; Lanthanum tungstate; Lanthanum chromite
Remark doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2015.01.027
Link
ID=293

Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625, 0.12) fast ion conductors: Structures, stability and oxide ion migration pathways

Authors Matthew L. Tate, Jennifer Hack, Xiaojun Kuang, Garry J. McIntyre, Ray L. Withers, Mark R. Johnson, Ivana Radosavljevic Evans
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 225, Pages: 383–390
Time of Publication: 2015
Abstract A combined experimental and computational study of Bi1−xNbxO1.5+x (x=0.0625 and 0.12) has been carried out using laboratory X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction, impedance measurements and ab-initio molecular dynamics. We demonstrate that Bi0.9375Nb0.0625O1.5625, previously reported to adopt a cubic fluorite-type superstructure, can form two different polymorphs depending on the synthetic method: a metastable cubic phase is produced by quenching; while slower cooling yields a stable material with a tetragonal √2×√2×1 superstructure, which undergoes a reversible phase transition into the cubic form at ~680 °C on subsequent reheating. Neutron diffraction reveals that the tetragonal superstructure arises mainly from ordering in the oxygen sublattice, with Bi and Nb remaining disordered, although structured diffuse scattering observed in the electron diffraction patterns suggests a degree of short-range ordering. Both materials are oxide ion conductors. On thermal cycling, Bi0.88Nb0.12O1.62 exhibits a decrease in conductivity of approximately an order of magnitude due to partial transformation into the tetragonal phase, but still exhibits conductivity comparable to yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on Bi0.9375Nb0.0625O1.5625 show that oxide ion diffusion occurs by O2− jumps between edge- and corner-sharing OM4 groups (M=Bi, Nb) via tetrahedral □M4 and octahedral □M6 vacancies.
Keywords Functional oxides; Fast ion conductors; Complex superstructures
Remark doi:10.1016/j.jssc.2015.01.006
Link
ID=290

Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Niels De Greef, Jin Won Seo andJean-Pierre Locquet

Author Hybrid Polymer Electrolytes Based on a Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(acrylic acid) Blend and a Pyrrolidinium-Based Ionic Liquid for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Source
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Volume: 2015, Issue: 7, Pages: 1290–1299
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Polymer blends of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were prepared with different molar ratios by a solvent-casting technique. The XRD patterns of the blends show that the degree of crystallinity of the PVA membranes decreases with the addition of PAA owing to the formation of interpenetrating polymer chains. The vibrational spectra of the blend membranes reveal the formation of strong hydrogen bonding between PVA and PAA. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) reveals that the storage modulus of a 25 mol-% PAA sample is comparable to that of pure PVA and, therefore, confirms the mechanical stability of the blend membranes. Significant changes in the peak areas and chemical shifts of the PVA hydroxyl signal (δ = 4–5 ppm) in the 1H NMR spectra of the blend membranes confirm the strong hydrogen bonding between the OH groups of PVA and PAA. The ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYR14TFSI) with 0.2 M lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) was added to the polymer blend to prepare flexible, nonvolatile hybrid polymer electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. A maximum ionic conductivity of 1 mS cm–1 is observed at 90 °C for the membrane with 70 mol-% IL.
Keywords Polymers;Ionic liquids;Hybrid membranes;Hydrogen bonds;Lithium batteries
Remark DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201402603
Link
ID=284

Electrochemical behavior of the pyrochlore- and fluorite-like solid solutions in the Pr2O3–ZrO2 system. Part I

Authors D.A. Belov, A.V. Shlyakhtina, J.C.C. Abrantes, S.A. Chernyak, G.A. Gasymova, O.K. Karyagina, L.G. Shcherbakova
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract We have studied the structure, microstructure, and electrochemical properties in air of (Pr2 − xZrx)Zr2O7 + x/2 (x = 0.15, 0.32, 0.78), Pr2Zr2O7, and Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 (x = 0.1, 0.4, 1) materials. The solid solutions were prepared through coprecipitation followed by heat treatment of the precursors at 1550 °C for 4 h. According to XRD data, the extent of the pyrochlore-like Pr2 ± xZr2 ± xO7 ± x/2 solid solutions at 1550 °C is ~ 6 mol.%, which is considerably smaller than that in the NdZrO and SmZrO systems at this temperature. Among the pyrochlores, the highest bulk conductivity was offered by the (Pr2 − xZrx)Zr2O7 + x/2 (x = 0.15): 7.15 × 10− 3 S/cm at 800 °C (Ea = 0.66 eV). The pyrochlore-like Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 (x = 0.1) had lower conductivity (3.97 × 10− 3 S/cm at 800 °C). The highest bulk conductivity among the materials studied was found in the Pr2O3-rich fluorite-like Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 with x = 1: ~ 0.217 S/cm at 800 °C (Ea = 0.0.31 eV). The temperature-dependent conductivity of the Pr2O3-rich fluorite-like solid solutions Pr2(Zr2 − xPrx)O7 − x/2 with x = 0.4 and 1 had a break at 560 °C, suggesting a change in the mechanism of ion transport at this temperature.
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.035
Link
ID=281

Structural and electrical study of samarium doped cerium oxide thin films prepared by e-beam evaporation

Authors Darius Virbukas, Mantas Sriubas, Giedrius Laukaitis
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Samarium doped cerium oxide (Sm0.15Ce0.85O1.925, SDC) thin films were grown on the Alloy 600 (Fe–Ni–Cr) and optical quartz (SiO2) substrates using e-beam deposition technique. Formed SDC thin films were characterized using different X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and impedance spectroscopy. The deposition rate of formed SDC thin films was changed from 2 Å/s to 16 Å/s. XRD analysis shows that all thin films have a cubic (FCC) structure and repeat the crystallographic orientation of the initial powders evaporated with different deposition rate and on different substrates. The crystallite size increases from 7.7 nm to 10.3 nm and from 7.2 nm to 9.2 nm on Alloy 600 substrate and optical quartz (SiO2) substrate respectively as the thin film deposition rate increases. SEM images indicate a dense and homogeneous structure of all formed SDC thin films. The ionic conductivity depends on thin films density and blocking factor. The best ionic conductivity (σg = 1.34 Sm− 1 and σgb = 2.29 Sm −1 at 873 K temperature, activation energy ΔEg = 0.91 eV and ΔEgb = 0.99 eV) was achieved for SDC thin films formed at 4 Å/s deposition rate. It was found that the highest density (5.25 g/cm3) and the lowest relaxation time in grain (τg = 9.83 × 10− 7 s), and the lowest blocking factor (0.39) is in SDC thin films formed at 4 Å/s deposition rate. The deposition rate influences the stoichiometry of the formed SDC thin ceramic films.
Keywords Electron beam deposition; Samarium doped ceria oxide (SDC); Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Ionic conductivity
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2014.09.036
Link
ID=279

Synthesis, crystal structure and properties of alluaudite-like triple molybdate Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24

Authors Aleksandra A. Savina, Sergey F. Solodovnikov, Dmitry A. Belov, Olga M. Basovich, Zoya A. Solodovnikova, Konstantin V. Pokholok, Sergey Yu. Stefanovich, Bogdan I. Lazoryak, Elena G. Khaikina
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 220, Pages: 217–220
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract A new triple molybdate Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group P View the MathML source1¯, a=12.5814(5), b=13.8989(5), c=28.4386(9) Å, α=90.108(2), β=90.064(2), γ=90.020(2)°, V=4973.0(3) Å3, Z=2, R=0.0440). Characteristic features of the structure are polyhedral layers composed of pairs of edge-shared FeO6 and (Fe, Na)O6 octahedra, which are connected by bridging МоО4 tetrahedra. The layers share common vertices with bridging МоО4 tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework with the cavities occupied by the Cs+ and Na+ cations. The compound undergoes first-order phase transformation at 642 K and above this phase transition, electrical conductivity reaches 10−3–10−2 S cm−1. Thus, Na25Cs8Fe5(MoO4)24 may be considered as a promising compound for developing new materials with high ionic conductivity.
Keywords Triple molybdate; Sodium; Synthesis; Crystal structure; Phase transition; Ionic conductivity
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.jssc.2014.09.004
Link
ID=277

Superior electrochemical performance and oxygen reduction kinetics of layered perovskite PrBaxCo2O5+δ (x = 0.90–1.0) oxides as cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Jingping Wang, Fuchang Meng, Tian Xia, Zhan Shi, Jie Lian, Chunbo Xu, Hui Zhao, Jean-Marc Bassat, Jean-Claude Grenier
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract The layered perovskite PrBaxCo2O5+δ (PBxCO, x = 0.90–1.0) oxides have been synthesized by a solid-state reaction technique, and evaluated as the potential cathode materials for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns show the orthorhombic structures which double the lattice parameters from the perovskite cell parameter as a ≈ ap, b ≈ ap and c ≈ 2ap (ap is the cell parameter of the primitive perovskite) in the Pmmm space group. There is a good chemical compatibility between the PBxCO cathode and the Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) electrolyte at 1000 °C. The electrical conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient of PBxCO are improved due to the increased amount of electronic holes originated from the Ba-deficiency. The results demonstrate the high electrochemical performance of PBxCO cathodes, as evidenced by the super low polarization resistances (Rp) over the intermediate temperature range. The lowest Rp value, 0.042 Ω cm2, and the cathodic overpotential, −15 mV at a current density of −25 mA cm−2, are obtained in the PrBa0.94Co2O5+δ cathode at 600 °C in air, which thus allow to be used as a highly promising cathode for IT-SOFCs. A CGO electrolyte fuel cell with the PrBa0.94Co2O5+δ cathode presents the attractive peak power density of ∼1.0 W cm−2 at 700 °C. Furthermore, the oxygen reduction kinetics of the PrBa0.94Co2O5+δ cathode is also studied, and the rate-limiting steps for oxygen reduction reaction are determined at different temperatures.
Remark DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2014.09.041
Link
ID=276

Organic–Inorganic Hybrid Membranes Based on Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) and Tetrabutylphosphonium Bromide Ionic Liquid for PEM Fuel Cell Applications

Authors Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Niels de Greef, Jin Won Seo and Jean-Pierre Locquet
Source
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Ionic liquids (ILs), with their inherent ionic conductivity and negligible vapor pressure, can be exploited in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells for which thermal management is a major problem and the cell operation temperature is limited by the boiling point of water. In this work, sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) membranes were modified by the incorporation of tetrabutylphosphonium bromide ([P4 4 4 4]Br) by solvent-casting. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to study the electrical properties of the modified membranes. Simultaneous TGA and FTIR studies were used to evaluate the thermal stability and chemical structure of the modified membranes, respectively. 1H NMR spectroscopy was applied to probe the changes in the chemical environment due to the interaction between the ionic liquid and the polymer. Mechanical properties were studied by dynamic mechanical analysis. The temperature-dependent behavior of the viscosity of the [P4 4 4 4]Br ionic liquid was observed to obey the Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann (VFT) equation, and was correlated to the ion-conducting properties of the IL-doped SPEEK membranes.
Remark DOI: 10.1002/ejic.201402558
Link
ID=270

Conductivity and oxygen reduction activity changes in lanthanum strontium manganite upon low-level chromium substitution

Authors George Tsekouras, Artur Braun
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 266, Pages: 19-24
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract On the timescale of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system lifetime requirements, the thermodynamically predicted low-level substitution of chromium on the B-site of (La,Sr)MnO3 could be a source of cathode degradation underlying more overt and well-known chromium poisoning mechanisms. To study this phenomenon in isolation, electronic conductivity (σ) and electrochemical oxygen reduction activity of the (La0.8Sr0.2)0.98CrxMn1−xO3 model series (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05 or 0.1) were measured in air between 850 and 650 °C. Depending on the extent of chromium substitution and the measurement temperature, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results could be deconvoluted into a maximum of three contributions reflecting possible limiting processes such as oxide ion transport and dissociative adsorption. Chromium substitution resulted in lowered σ (from 174 S cm− 1 (x = 0) to 89 S cm− 1 (x = 0.1) at 850 °C) and a steady rise in associated activation energy (Ea) (from 0.105 ± 0.001 eV (x = 0) to 0.139 ± 0.001 eV (x = 0.1)). From EIS analyses, ohmic and polarisation resistances increased, whilst Ea for the overall oxygen reduction reaction also increased from 1.39 ± 0.04 eV (x = 0) to 1.48–1.54 ± 0.04 eV upon chromium substitution.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Lanthanum strontium manganite; Chromium poisoning; Electronic conductivity; Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy
Remark Link
ID=269

The effect of calcination temperature on the electrochemical properties of La0.3Sr0.7Fe0.7Cr0.3O3−x (LSFC) perovskite oxide anode of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

Authors Yifei Sun, Ning Yan, Jianhui Li, Huayi Wu, Jing-Li Luo, Karl T. Chuang
Source
Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments
Volume: 8, Pages: 92-98
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract A series of perovskite structure anode materials, LSFC, was successfully prepared by a glycine combustion process and further calcined at different temperatures. The electrochemical properties of anodes prepared at various calcination temperatures (1100 °C, 1200 °C and 1300 °C) were investigated. The calcination temperature had no significant influence on the morphology of the material but showed obvious influences on the particle sizes and electrochemical properties of the materials. Higher calcination temperature results in sharper X-ray diffractometer (XRD) diffraction peaks of the materials with larger particle sizes and higher electrical conductivity. However materials calcined at higher temperature had much smaller BET surface area resulting in lower triple phase boundary (TPB). The electrochemical performance test exhibited that LSFC anode material sintered at 1100 °C exhibited the smallest area specific resistance (ASR) value in H2 at operating temperatures from 700 to 900 °C. For proton conducting SOFCs (PC-SOFCs) fed by syngas, the cell with anode calcined at 1100 °C also showed highest power density output of 120 mW/cm2 at 750 °C, which was almost three times higher than that of the cell with anode calcined at 1300 °C.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Calcination temperature; Electrochemical properties; Perovskite
Remark Link
ID=268

Oxygen interstitial and vacancy conduction in symmetric Ln2 ± x Zr2 ± x O7 ± x/2 (Ln = Nd, Sm) solid solutions

Authors A. V. Shlyakhtina, D. A. Belov, A. V. Knotko, I. V. Kolbanev, A. N. Streletskii, O. K. Karyagina, L. G. Shcherbakova
Source
Inorganic Materials
Volume: 50, Issue: 10, Pages: 1035-1049
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract We have compared (Ln2 − x Zr x )Zr2O7 + x/2 (Ln = Nd, Sm) pyrochlore-like solid solutions with interstitial oxide ion conduction and Ln2(Zr2 − x Ln x )O7 − δ (Ln = Nd, Sm) pyrochlore-like solid solutions with vacancy-mediated oxide ion conduction in the symmetric systems Nd2O3-ZrO2 (NdZrO) and Sm2O3-ZrO2 (SmZrO). We have studied their structure, microstructure, and transport properties and determined the excess oxygen content of the (Sm2 − x Zr x )Zr2O7 + x/2 (x = 0.2) material using thermal analysis and mass spectrometry in a reducing atmosphere (H2/Ar-He). The Ln2 ± x Zr2 ± x O7 ± x/2 (Ln = Nd, Sm) solid solutions have almost identical maximum oxygen vacancy and interstitial conductivities: (3–4) × 10−3 S/cm at 750°C. The lower oxygen vacancy conductivity of the Ln2(Zr2 − x Ln x )O7 − δ (Ln = Nd, Sm; 0 < x ≤ 0.3) solid solutions is due to the sharp decrease in it as a result of defect association processes, whereas the interstitial oxide ion conductivity of the (Ln2 − x Zr x )Zr2O7 + x/2 (Ln = Nd, Sm; 0.2 ≤ x < 0.48) pyrochlore-like solid solutions is essentially constant in a broad range of Ln2O3 concentrations.
Remark Link
ID=267

MICROWAVE SINTERING OF Sr AND Mg-DOPED LANTHANUM GALLATE (LSGM) SOLID ELECTROLYTES

Authors Cristian Andronescu, Victor Fruth, Enikoe Volceanov, Rares Scurtu, Cornel Munteanu, Maria Zaharescu
Source
Romanian journal of materials
Time of Publication: 2014-01
Abstract Sr2+ and Mg2+ simultaneously doped lanthanum gallate (LSGM) powders, prepared by a modified Pechini route using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as polymeric alcohol, were densified using an activated microwave technique at 2.45 GHz, to develop a dense stable electrolyte for application in intermediate temperatures solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC). Thermal behaviour of precursors was investigated by means of differential thermal analysis combined with thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA). The powders and sintered samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis (SEM-EDAX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) and ionic conductivity of the sintered samples were also evaluated. Fine, homogeneous and high density pellets of almost pure LSGM phase were obtained after sintering at 14000C for a short period time in an activated microwave field. Using activated microwave field, due to the volumetric in situ heating, the sintering process is highly specific and instantaneous, leading to a faster kinetics compared to the conventional process (electric oven). With an optimized sintering schedule, a fine grained and dense microstructure of the samples were obtained.
Remark Link
ID=266

Magnetron formation of Ni/YSZ anodes of solid oxide fuel cells

Authors A. A. Solov&#8217;ev, N. S. Sochugov, I. V. Ionov, A. V. Shipilova, A. N. Koval&#8217;chuk
Source
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume: 50, Issue: 7, Pages: 647-655
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Physico-chemical and structural properties of nanocomposite NiO/ZrO2:Y2O3 (NiO/YSZ) films applied using the reactive magnetron deposition technique are studied for application as anodes of solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of oxygen consumption and magnetron power on the discharge parameters is determined to find the optimum conditions of reactive deposition. The conditions for deposition of NiO/YSZ films, under which the deposition rate is maximum (12 μm/h), are found and the volume content of Ni is within the range of 40–50%. Ni-YSZ films reduced in a hydrogen atmosphere at the temperature of 800°C have a nanoporous structure. However, massive nickel agglomerates are formed in the course of reduction on the film surface; their amount grows at an increase in Ni content in the film. Solid oxide fuel cells with YSZ supporting electrolyte and a LaSrMnO3 cathode are manufactured to study electrochemical properties of NiO/YSZ films. It is shown that fuel cells with a nanocomposite NiO/YSZ anode applied using a magnetron sputtering technique have the maximum power density twice higher than in the case of fuel cells with an anode formed using the high-temperature sintering technique owing to a more developed gas-anode-electrolyte three-phase boundary.
Remark Link
ID=265

Full ceramic micro solid oxide fuel cells: towards more reliable MEMS power generators operating at high temperatures

Authors
Source
Energy Environ. Sci.
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Batteries, with a limited capacity, have dominated the power supply of portable devices for decades. Recently, the emergence of new types of highly efficient miniaturized power generators like micro fuel cells has opened up alternatives for continuous operation on the basis of unlimited fuel feeding. This work addresses for the first time the development of a full ceramic micro solid oxide fuel cell fabricated in silicon technology. This full-ceramic device represents a new generation of miniaturized power generators able to operate at high temperatures, and therefore able to work with a hydrocarbon fuel supply. Dense yttria-stabilized zirconia free-standing large-area membranes on micromachined silicon were used as the electrolyte. Thin-film porous electrodes of La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ and gadolinia-doped ceria were employed as cathode and anode materials, respectively. The electrochemical performance of all the components was evaluated by partial characterization using symmetrical cells, yielding excellent performance for the electrolyte (area specific resistance of 0.15 Ω cm2 at temperatures as low as 450 °C) and the electrodes (area specific resistance of the cathode and anode below 0.3 Ω cm2 at 700 °C). A micro solid oxide fuel cell with an active area of 2 mm2 and less than 1 micrometer in thickness was characterized under fuel cell conditions, using hydrogen as a fuel and air as an oxidant. A maximum power density of 100 mW cm−2 and 2 mW per single membrane was generated at 750 °C, having an open circuit voltage of 1.05 V. Impedance spectroscopy of the all-ceramic membrane showed a total area-specific resistance of [similar]3.5 Ω cm2.
Remark DOI: 10.1039/C4EE00748D
Link
ID=260

Ceramic–carbonate dual-phase membrane with improved chemical stability for carbon dioxide separation at high temperature

Authors Tyler T. Norton, Y.S. Lin
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 263, Pages: 172–179
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract This study examines membrane synthesis, structural stability, permeation properties, and long-term permeation stability of a new dense dual-phase membrane of composition La0.85Ce0.1Ga0.3Fe0.65Al0.05O3 − δ (LCGFA)–carbonate for high temperature CO2 separation. Porous ceramic supports made by sintering pressed powder at a temperature below its densification temperature resulted in a desired support with an open porosity ranging between 40 and 50%. The dual-phase membranes was prepared by direct infiltration of the ceramic supports in molten carbonate at 600 °C, resulting in a four order of magnitude decrease in permeance when compared to the support. LCGFA–carbonate membranes are stable when exposed to gases ranging from gas mixtures containing N2 and various concentrations of CO2 to simulated syngas, and exhibit a stable long term CO2 permeation flux of 0.025 mL·min− 1·cm− 2 for more than 275 h at 900 °C. The CO2 permeation results show exponential dependence to increasing system temperature as well as a linear dependence to logarithmic change in CO2 partial pressure gradients across the membrane in the CO2 pressure range studied.
Keywords Ceramic&#8211;carbonate; Carbon dioxide permeation; Dual-phase membrane; Perovskite
Remark Link
ID=258

Carbon dioxide permeation properties and stability of samarium-doped-ceria carbonate dual-phase membranes

Authors Tyler T. Norton, Bo Lu, Y.S. Lin
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 467, Pages: 244–252
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract This study examines high temperature carbon dioxide permeation properties and long-term permeation stability of samarium doped ceria (SDC)-carbonate dual-phase membranes. Hermetic SDC-carbonate membranes were prepared by infiltrating porous SDC ceramic support with Li/K/Na molten carbonate. Carbon permeation experiments on the SDC-carbonate membranes were conducted with either atmospheric or high pressure feed of CO2:N2 mixture or simulated syngas with composition of 50% CO, 35% CO2, 10% H2, and 5% N2. The SDC-carbonate membranes exhibit CO2 permeation flux in the range of 0.2–0.8 mL(STP) cm−2 min−1 in 700–950 °C with measured CO2 to N2 separation factor above 1000. The CO2 permeation flux shows power function dependence with CO2 partial pressure and exponential dependence with temperature. The activation energy for CO2 permeation is 63 kJ mol−1, similar to that for oxygen ionic conduction in SDC. Essentially the same CO2 permeation characteristics are observed for the membranes with CO2:N2 and simulated syngas feeds. The membranes exhibit stable long-term permeation flux in 700–900 °C with either CO2:N2 or simulated gas feed at atmospheric pressure or high pressure (5 atm) for various periods of testing time (as long as 35 days). The membranes, with remarkable permeation stability in the presence of H2, show only slight decomposition of the ceramic phase after long-term exposure to feed gas mixtures at high temperature.
Keywords Ceramic-carbonate; Samarium doped ceria; Carbon dioxide permeation; Fluorite; Membrane stability
Remark Link
ID=255

Oxide ion transport in (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+δ electrolytes by an interstitial mechanism

Authors A.V. Shlyakhtina, D.A. Belov, A.V. Knotko, M. Avdeev, I.V. Kolbanev, G.A. Vorobieva, O.K. Karyagina, L.G. Shcherbakova
Source
Journal of Alloys and Compounds
Volume: 603, Issue: 5, Pages: 274–281
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract We have studied the structure and transport properties of ten (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+x/2 (x = 0–1.27) solid solutions, which lie in the ZrO2–Nd2Zr2O7 isomorphous miscibility range. Major attention has been focused on the pyrochlore-like (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+x/2 solid solutions with x = 0–0.78, which are thought to be potential interstitial oxide ion conductors. The X-ray and neutron diffraction results demonstrate that the (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+x/2 (x = 0–1.27) solid solutions undergo an order–disorder (pyrochlore–defect fluorite) structural phase transition. The (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+x/2 (x = 0.2–0.78) have the bulk conductivity, ∼(1.2–4) × 10–3 S/cm at 750 °C, which is two orders of magnitude higher than that of the ordered pyrochlore Nd2Zr2O7. An attempt has been made to determine the interstitial oxygen content of (Nd2−xZrx)Zr2O7+x/2 (x = 0.2; 0.67) in a reducing atmosphere using thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry. It has been shown that no reduction occurs in the NdZrO system, where neodymium has only one oxidation state, 3+.
Keywords Fuel cells; Ionic conduction; Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; Neutron diffraction; X-ray diffraction; SEM
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jallcom.2014.03.068
Link
ID=252

Role of point defects in bipolar fatigue behavior of Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3 modified (Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3 relaxor ceramics

Authors Nitish Kumar, Troy Y. Ansell and David P. Cann
Source
J. Applied Physics
Volume: 115, Pages: 154104
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Lead-free Bi(Mg1/2Ti1/2)O3-(Bi1/2K1/2)TiO3-(Bi1/2 Na 1/2)TiO3 (BMT-BKT-BNT) ceramics have been shown to exhibit large electromechanical strains under high electric fields along with negligible fatigue under strong electric fields. To investigate the role of point defects on the fatigue characteristics, the composition 5BMT-40BKT-55BNT was doped to incorporate acceptor and donor defects on the A and B sites by adjusting the Bi/Na and Ti/Mg stoichiometries. All samples had pseudo-cubic symmetries based on x-ray diffraction, typical of relaxors. Dielectric measurements showed that the high and low temperature phase transitions were largely unaffected by doping. Acceptor doping resulted in the observation of a typical ferroelectric-like polarization with a remnant polarization and strain hysteresis loops with significant negative strain. Donor-doped compositions exhibited characteristics that were indicative of an ergodic relaxor phase. Fatigue measurements were carried out on all of the compositions. While the A-site acceptor-doped composition showed a small degradation in maximum strain after 106 cycles, the other compositions were essentially fatigue free. Impedance measurements were used to identify the important conduction mechanisms in these compositions. As expected, the presence of defects did not strongly influence the fatigue behavior in donor-doped compositions owing to the nature of their reversible field-induced phase transformation. Even for the acceptor-doped compositions, which had stable domains in the absence of an electric field at room temperature, there was negligible degradation in the maximum strain due to fatigue. This suggests that either the defects introduced through stoichiometric variations do not play a prominent role in fatigue in these systems or it is compensated by factors like decrease in coercive field, an increase in ergodicity, symmetry change, or other factors.
Remark http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.487167
Link
ID=251

Structure and transport properties in un-doped and acceptor-doped gadolinium tungstates

Authors Wen Xing, Protima Rauwel, Charles H. Hervoches, Zuoan Li, Reidar Haugsrud
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 261, Pages: 87-94
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Nominal Gd6WO12, Gd5.94Ca0.06WO12 − δ, Gd5.7Ca0.3WO12 − δ and Gd5.7WO12 − δ were synthesized by solid state reaction and wet chemistry methods. The structure and morphology of the materials were analyzed by XRD, SEM and TEM and the electrical conductivity was measured as a function of temperature in reducing and oxidizing atmospheres under wet and dry conditions. The total conductivity is essentially independent of composition above 700 °C. Below 700 °C, the conductivity of Ca-doped samples is higher than that of Gd6WO12 and Gd5.7WO12 − δ and increases with increasing doping concentration. The conductivity below 700 °C is also higher under wet compared to dry conditions and, moreover, the H–D isotope effect on the conductivity is significant. Based on this, and on conductivity characterization as a function of pO2pO2 and pH2OpH2O, it was concluded that the materials are mixed ionic and electronic conductors where electrons and holes dominate at high temperatures and intermediate temperatures under sufficiently reducing and oxidizing conditions, respectively. Protons are the predominating ionic charge carriers below approximately 700 °C. The hydrogen flux through Gd5.7Ca0.3WO12 − δ was measured as a function of temperature under wet and dry sweep gas conditions, as well as with varying pH2pH2 on the feed side, confirming the picture outlined by the conductivity measurements. A defect chemical model has been derived to which the conductivity data were fitted yielding thermodynamic and transport parameters describing the functional characteristics of the materials.
Keywords Proton; Structure; Gd6WO12; Ambipolar conductivity; Hydrogen flux
Remark Link
ID=250

Solid Oxide-Molten Carbonate Nano-composite Fuel Cells: Particle Size Effect

Authors Shalima Shawuti, Mehmet A. Gulgun
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Varying the amount of specific interface area in the CeO2-Na2CO3 nano-composite fuel cell electrolyte helped reveal the role of interfaces in ionic conductivity. We mixed ceria particles with micrometer or nanometer size distributions to obtain a specific surface area (SSA) in the composite from 47 m2/g to 203 m2/g. Micro-structural investigations of the nano-composite showed that the Na2CO3 phase serves as the glue in the microstructure, while thermal analysis revealed a glass transition-like behavior at 350 °C. High SSA enhanced the ionic conductivity significantly at temperatures below 400 °C. Moreover, the activation energy for the Arrhenius conductivity (σT) of the composites was lower than that of the Na2CO3 phase. This difference in the activation energies is consistent with the calculated dissociation energy of the carbonate phase. The strong dependence of conductivity on the SSA, along with differences in the activation energies, suggests that the oxide surface acted as a dissociation agent for the carbonate phase. A model for the solid composite electrolyte is proposed: in the nano-composite electrolyte, the oxide surface helps Na2CO3 dissociate, so that the "liberated" ions can move more easily in the interaction region around the oxide particles, thus giving rise to high ionic conductivities.
Keywords composite electrolyte; ionic conductivity; impedance spectroscopy; SOFC; interphase; activation energy
Remark in press, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.05.010
Link
ID=247

Doped Germanate-Based Apatites as Electrolyte for Use in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors S.-F. Wang, Y.-F. Hsu, W.-J. Lin and K. Kobayashi
Source
Fuel Cells
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract Apatite ceramics, known for their good electrical conductivities, have garnered substantial attention as an alternative electrolyte for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). However, studies focusing on the electrochemical performances of SOFCs with apatities as electrolytes remain rare, partly due to their high sintering temperature. In this study, the effects of Mg2+, Al3+, Ga3+, and Sn4+ dopants on the characteristics of La9.5Ge6O26 ± δ are examined and their potential for use as SOFC electrolytes evaluated. The results indicate that La9.5Ge5.5Al0.5O26 is stabilized into a hexagonal structure, while the La9.5Ge5.5Sn0.5O26.25, La9.5Ge5.5Ga0.5O26, and La9.5Ge5.5Mg0.5O25.75 ceramics reveal triclinic cells accompanied with the second phase La2Sn2O7 or La2GeO5. The study further demonstrates that a high sintering temperature is needed for both the La9.5Ge5.5Mg0.5O25.75 and the La9.5Ge5.5Sn0.5O26.25 ceramics, and the worst electrical conductivity among the examined systems appears in the La9.5Ge5.5Ga0.5O26 ceramic. The La9.5Ge5.5Al0.5O26 ceramic is accordingly selected for cell evaluation due to its ability to reach densification at 1,350 °C, its good electrical conductivity of 0.026 S cm–1 at 800 °C, and its acceptable thermal expansion coefficient of 10.1 × 10–6 K–1. The maximum power densities of the NiO-SDC/La9.5Ge5.5Al0.5O26/LSCF-SDC single cell are found to be respectively 0.22, 0.16, 0.11, and 0.07 W cm–2 at 950, 900, 850, and 800 °C.
Keywords Apatites; Cell Performance; Electrolyte; Impedance; Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Remark Article first published online: 19 FEB 2014 DOI: 10.1002/fuce.201300093
Link
ID=246

Effect of Nb substitution for Ti on the electrical properties of Yb2Ti2O7-based oxygen ion conductors

Authors L.G. Shcherbakova, J.C.C. Abrantes, D.A. Belov, E.A. Nesterova, O.K. Karyagina, A.V. Shlyakhtina
Source
Solid State Ionics
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract We have studied the effect of niobium doping on the electrical conductivity of Yb2Ti2O7-based oxygen ion conductors. Yb2[Ti1 − xNbx]2O7 (x = 0.01, 0.04, 0.1) and (Yb0.8Tb0.1Ca0.1)2[Ti1 − xNbx]2O6.9 (x = 0; 0.05; 0.1) pyrochlore solid solutions were synthesized through coprecipitation followed by firing at 1550 °C for 4 h. The materials were examined by XPS, XRD, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. Yb2(Ti0.99Nb0.01)2O7 was shown to have the highest oxygen ion conductivity in air (2.3 × 10− 3 S/cm at 750 °C), which is however markedly lower than that of undoped Yb2Ti2O7. In the (Yb0.8Tb0.1Ca0.1)2[Ti1 − xNbx]2O6.9 (x = 0; 0.05; 0.1) system, the highest conductivity is offered by (Yb0.8Tb0.1Ca0.1)2[Ti0.95Nb0.05]2O6.9 (σ = 4.44 × 10− 3 S/cm at 650 °C). Additional oxygen vacancies created by Ca doping in pyrochlore structure reduce the detrimental effect of Nb4 + doping on the oxide ion transport up to 5% Nb. The conductivity of the Yb2(Ti0.99Nb0.01)2O7 and (Yb0.8Tb0.1Ca0.1)2[Ti0.95Nb0.05]2O6.9 solid solutions was measured both in air and under reducing conditions (5% H2 in N2 and CO2 atmospheres). A comparative study of both these compositions under 5% H2 in N2 atmosphere showed that the transport mechanism was not affected by complex doping of the lanthanide and titanium sublattices in the Yb2Ti2O7-based materials and was related to oxygen vacancies. Conductivity measurements in CO2 were done to ensure correct evaluation of the ionic conductivity of (Yb0.8Tb0.1Ca0.1)2[Ti0.95Nb0.05]2O6.9, because in air it seems to be a mixed p-type and ionic conductor.
Keywords Oxide ion conductivity; Pyrochlore; Acceptor doping; Donor doping; Impedance spectroscopy
Remark Available online 1 February 2014; http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2014.01.019
Link
ID=241

Characterisation of structure and conductivity of BaTi0.5Sc0.5O3 − δ

Authors S.M.H. Rahman, I. Ahmed, R. Haugsrud, S.G. Eriksson, C.S. Knee
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 225, Pages: 140–146
Time of Publication: 2014
Abstract BaTi0.5Sc0.5O3 − δ was prepared via solid state reaction route and final sintering at 1550 °C. High resolution X-ray powder diffraction on the as-prepared material reveals a cubic perovskite structure with a unit cell parameter, a = 4.1343(1) Å. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the presence of significant levels of protons in the as-prepared material and 74% of the theoretically achievable protonation through filling of oxide ion vacancies was attained on exposure to a humid environment at 185 °C. Infrared spectroscopy revealed a broad Osingle bondH stretching band confirming the presence of OHO• defects. Electrical conductivity was measured with variable frequency AC impedance methods in oxygen, argon, and hydrogen under dry, hydrated (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) conditions. In the temperature range of 150–550 °C in a wet gas atmosphere the conductivity is significantly higher than that observed for dry conditions, indicating that protons are the dominant charge carriers. Conductivity is also found to be higher in dry oxygen in comparison with dry argon over the whole temperature range of 150–1000 °C, characteristic of contribution from p-type charge carriers under oxidising atmospheres. At 550 °C the proton conductivity was estimated to be 2.89 × 10− 4 S cm− 1 in wet Ar. Fitting of conductivity data provides a hydration enthalpy change (ΔHhydr0) of − 100 ± 5 kJ/mol and hydration entropy change (ΔShydr0) of − 160 ± 10 J/mol K.
Keywords Barium titanate; BaTiO3; Perovskite; Proton conductivity; X-ray diffraction; Hydration
Remark Link
ID=228

Nanocrystalline Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ synthesized using a chelating route for use in IT-SOFC cathodes: microstructure, surface chemistry and electrical conductivity

Authors Rares Scurtu, Simona Somacescu, Jose Maria Calderon-Moreno, Daniela Culita, Ion Bulimestru, Nelea Popa, Aurelian Gulea, Petre Osiceanu
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Time of Publication: 2013
Abstract Nanocrystalline Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3−δ powders were synthesized by a chelating route using different polyfunctional HxAPC acids (APC=aminopolycarboxylate; x= 3, 4, 5). Different homologous aminopolycarboxylic acids, namely nitrilotriacetic (H3nta), ethylenediaminetetraacetic (H4edta), 1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetracetic (H4cdta) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic (H5dtpa) acid, were used as chelating agents to combine Sm, Sr, Co elements into a perovskite structure. The effects of the chelating agents on the crystalline structure, porosity, surface chemistry and electrical properties were investigated. The electrical properties of the perovskite-type materials emphasized that their conductivities in the temperature range of interest (600–800 °C) depend on the nature of the precursors as well as on the presence of a residual Co oxide phase as shown by XRD and XPS analysis. The surface chemistry and the surface stoichiometries were determined by XPS revealing a complex chemical behavior of Sr that exhibits a peculiar „surface phase” and „bulk phase” chemistry within the detected volume (<10 nm).
Keywords Cathode; Perovkites; Electrical Conductivity; XPS; IT-SOFC
Remark Available online 5 November 2013
Link
ID=224

Galliosilicate glasses for viscous sealants in solid oxide fuel cell stacks: Part III: Behavior in air and humidified hydrogen

Authors T. Jin, M.O. Naylor, J.E. Shelby, S.T. Misture
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Time of Publication: 2013
Abstract Optimized boro-galliosilicate glasses were selected to evaluate their viscous sealing performance in both air and humidified hydrogen atmospheres. Selected low-alkali and alkali-free glasses show excellent performance, with viscous behavior maintained for more than 1000 h in wet hydrogen. Candidate sealants were thermally treated at 850 and 750 °C for up to 1000 h in contact with alumina coated 441 stainless steel (Al-SS) and 8 mol% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ). Each sealant crystallizes appreciably by 1000 h, and their coefficients of thermal expansion range from 10.2 to 11.7 × 10−6 K−1, 100–400 °C. The remnant amorphous phases in most of the partially crystallized sealants show softening points near or below the target operating temperatures, thus enabling viscous sealing. Humidified hydrogen in general increases the rate of crystallization but does not change the crystalline phases formed or interactions with 8YSZ. For the low-alkali GaBA series, wet H2 enhances the interfacial interaction between potassium in the glass phase and the protective alumina coating on the stainless steel.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Sealing glass; Galliosilicate; Thermal expansion; Hydrogen
Remark Available online 25 October 2013
Link
ID=217

Synthesis, properties and phase transitions of pyrochlore- and fluorite-like Ln2RMO7 (Ln=Sm, Ho; R=Lu, Sc; M= Nb, Ta)

Authors A.V. Shlyakhtina, D.A. Belov, K.S. Pigalskiy, A.N. Shchegolikhin, I.V. Kolbanev, O.K. Karyagina
Source
Materials Research Bulletin
Time of Publication: 2013
Abstract We have studied the new compounds with fluorite-like (Ho2RNbO7 (R = Lu, Sc)) and pyrochlore-like (Sm2ScTaO7) structure as potential oxide ion conductors. The phase formation process (from 1200 to 1600 °C) and physical properties (electrical, thermo mechanical, and magnetic) for these compounds were investigated. Among the niobate materials the highest bulk conductivity is offered by the fluorite-like Ho2ScNbO7 synthesized at 1600 °C: 3.8 × 10−5 S/cm at 750 °C, whereas in Sm system the highest bulk conductivity, 7.3 × 10−6 S/cm at 750 °C, is offered by the pyrochlore Sm2ScTaO7 synthesized at 1400 °C. In Sm2ScTaO7 pyrochlore we have observed the first-order phase transformation at ∼650–700 °C is related to rearrangement process in the oxygen sublattice of the pyrochlore structure containing B-site cations in different valence state and actually is absent in the defect fluorites. The two holmium niobates show Curie–Weiss paramagnetic behavior, with the prevalence of antiferromagnetic coupling. The magnetic susceptibility of Sm2ScTaO7 is a weak function of temperature, corresponding to Van Vleck paramagnetism.
Keywords Pyrochlore; Fluorite; Phase transition; Ionic conductivity; Thermo mechanical analysis; Dielectric permittivity; Loss tangent; Magnetic susceptibility
Remark Available online 11 October 2013
Link
ID=208

Effects of Nb5+, Mo6+, and W6+ dopants on the germanate-based apatites as electrolyte for use in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Wan-Ju Lin
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 38, Issue: 27, Pages: 12015–12023
Time of Publication: 2013-09
Abstract Rare information is available in the literature on the cell performance of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) using apatites known for their good electrical conductivity as electrolyte materials. In this study, La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5, La9.5Ge5.5Mo0.5O26.75, and La9.5Ge5.5W0.5O26.75 ceramics were prepared and characterized. The results indicated that the La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 and La9.5Ge5.5W0.5O26.75 ceramics reported hexagonal phase, while the La9.5Ge5.5Mo0.5O26.75 ceramic demonstrated triclinic symmetry. Among the apatities evaluated, La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 sintered at 1450 °C showed the best conduction with an electrical conductivity value of 0.045 S/cm at 800 °C. Button cells of NiO–SDC/La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5/LSCF–SDC were built and revealed good structural integrity. The total ohmic resistance (R0) and interfacial polarization resistance (RP) of the cell read 0.428 and 0.174 Ω cm2 and 0.871 and 1.164 Ω cm2, respectively at 950 and 800 °C. The maximum power densities (MPD) of the single cell at 950 and 800 °C were respectively 0.363 and 0.095 W cm−2. Without optimizing the anode and cathode as well as hermetic sealing of the cell against the gas, the study found the performance of the single cell with the pure La9.5Ge5.5Nb0.5O26.5 as its electrolyte material superior to those of the SOFC cells with a YSZ electrolyte of comparable thickness shown in the literature.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Apatite; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark Link
ID=206

New double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6: Synthesis, structure, properties

Authors Aleksandra A. Savina, Sergey F. Solodovnikov, Olga M. Basovich, Zoya A. Solodovnikova, Dmitry A. Belov, Konstantin V. Pokholok, Irina A. Gudkova, Sergey Yu. Stefanovich, Bogdan I. Lazoryak, Elena G. Khaikina
Source
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Volume: 205, Pages: 149–153
Time of Publication: 2013-09
Abstract A new double molybdate Na9Fe(MoO4)6 was synthesized using solid state reactions and studied with X-ray powder diffraction, second harmonic generation (SHG) technique, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray fluorescence analysis, Mössbauer and dielectric impedance spectroscopy. Single crystals of Na9Fe(MoO4)6 were obtained and its structure was solved (the space group RView the MathML source3¯, a=14.8264(2), c=19.2402(3) Å, V=3662.79(9) Å3, Z=6, R=0.0132). The structure is related to that of sodium ion conductor II-Na3Fe2(AsO4)3. The basic structure units are polyhedral clusters composed of central FeО6 octahedron sharing edges with three Na(1)О6 octahedra. The clusters share common vertices with bridging МоО4 tetrahedra to form an open 3D framework where the cavities are occupied by Na(2) and Na(3) atoms. The compound melts incongruently at 904.7±0.2 K. Arrhenius type temperature dependence of electric conductivity σ has been registered in solid state (σ=6.8×10−2 S сm−1 at 800 K), thus allowing considering Na9Fe(MoO4)6 as a new sodium ion conductor.
Keywords Sodium&#8211;iron molybdate; Crystal structure; Solid-state electrolyte
Remark Link
ID=205

Study of bulk and grain-boundary conductivity of Ln2+xHf2−xO7−δ (Ln = Sm-Gd; x = 0, 0.096) pyrochlores

Authors A. V. Shlyakhtina, S. N. Savvin, A. V. Levchenko, A. V. Knotko, Petra Fedtke, Andreas Busch, Torsten Barfels, Marion Wienecke, L. G. Shcherbakova
Source
Journal of Electroceramics
Volume: 24, Issue: 4, Pages: 300-307
Time of Publication: 2010-06
Abstract The electrical conductivity of new solid electrolytes Eu2.096Hf1.904O6.952 and Gd2Hf2O7 have been compared with those for different pyrochlores including titanates and zirconates Ln2+xМ2−xO7−δ (Ln = Sm-Lu; M = Ti, Zr; x = 0−0.81). Impedance spectroscopy data demonstrate that Eu2.096Hf1.904O6.952 and Gd2Hf2O7 synthesized from mechanically activated oxides have high ionic conductivity, comparable to that of their zirconate analogues. The bulk and grain-boundary components of conductivity in Sm2.096Hf1.904O6.952 (Тsynth = 1600°С), Eu2.096Hf1.904O6.952 and Gd2Hf2O7 (Тsynth = 1670°С) have been determined. The highest bulk conductivity is offered by the disordered pyrochlores prepared at 1600°C and 1670°C: ~1.5 × 10−4 S/cm for Sm2.096Hf1.904O6.952, 5 × 10−3 S/cm for Eu2.096Hf1.904O6.952 and 3 × 10−3 S/cm for Gd2Hf2O7 at 780°С, respectively. The conductivity of the fluorite-like phases at the phase boundaries of the Ln2+xМ2−xO7−δ (Ln = Eu, Gd; M = Zr, Hf; x ~ 0.286) solid solutions, as well as that of the high-temperature fluorite-like phases Ln2+xМ2−xO7−δ (Ln = Eu, Gd; M = Zr, Hf; x = 0−0.286), is lower than the conductivity of the disordered pyrochlores Ln2+xМ2−xO7−δ (Ln = Eu, Gd; M = Zr, Hf; x = 0−0.096).
Remark Link
ID=200

Optimization of synthesis conditions for rare-earth titanate based oxygen ion conductors

Authors A.V. Shlyakhtina, D.A. Belov, S.Yu. Steafanovich, E.A. Nesterova, O.K. Karyagina, L.G. Shcherbakova
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 230, Pages: 52-58
Time of Publication: 2013-01
Abstract High-density (Yb0.9Ca0.1)2Ti2O6.9, (Yb0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ, and (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ solid solutions have been prepared through co-precipitation followed by firing for 4 h at 1500 and 1550 °C, and their crystal structure (XRD), microstructure (SEM), and oxygen ion conductivity (impedance spectroscopy) have been studied in relation to the firing temperature and precipitant used. As in the case of (Yb0.9Ca0.1)2Ti2O6.9 and (Yb0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ, the optimal synthesis temperature for (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ is 1500 °C. The bulk oxygen ion conductivity of the pyrochlore-like solid solutions (Yb0.9Ca0.1)2Ti2O6.9 is a stronger function of synthesis temperature than that of the (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ and (Yb0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ solid solutions with more complex A sublattice. The rise of the synthesis temperature from 1500 to 1550 °C has detrimental effect on the grain boundary conductivity of the (Yb0.9Ca0.1)2Ti2O6.9 and (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ ceramics. That effect is connected with a considerable grain-boundary segregation of a calcium-containing phase in the (Yb0.9Ca0.1)2Ti2O6.9 and (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ. The bulk and grain boundary conductivity of (Dy0.8Ca0.1Tb0.1)2Ti2O7 − δ are independent of the precursor synthesis conditions (homogeneous and non-homogeneous co-precipitation).
Keywords Synthesis; Co-precipitation; Pyrochlore; Doping; Oxide ion conductivity; Impedance spectroscopy
Remark Link
ID=195

H and Li Related Defects in ZnO and their Effect on Electrical Properties

Authors
Source
J. Phys. Chem. C
Volume: 166, Issue: 44, Pages: 23764–23772
Time of Publication: 2012-10
Abstract Li and H are important electrically active impurities in ZnO and this work presents a detailed experimental and computational study of the behavior of H and Li in ZnO, and their effect on its defect structure. We employ AC conductivity measurements as a function of temperature and partial pressure of O2, H2O and D2O, which is combined with first principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations and thermodynamic modeling (TDM) of finite temperature defect structures in undoped and Li doped ZnO. Undoped ZnO is dominated by protons as hydroxide defects (OH_O^•), oxygen vacancies (v_O^(••)) and electrons under a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and we also predict from DFT and TDM the substitutional hydride ion (H_O^•) to dominate concentration-wise under the most reducing conditions at temperatures above 500 °C. The equilibrium concentrations of defects in ZnO are small, and dopants such as Li strongly affect the electrical properties. Experimentally, Li doped ZnO is found to be n-type under all available atmospheric conditions and temperatures, with a n-type conductivity significantly lower than that of as-grown ZnO. The n-type conductivity also increases with decreasing p_(O_2 ) and with increasing p_(H_2 O). The observed electrical properties of Li doped ZnO are attributed to dominance of the ionic defects Li_Zn^/, OH_O^•, Li_i^•, v_O^(••), and the neutral complexes (Li_Zn OH_O)^× and (Li_Zn Li_i)^×. Although Li doping lowers the Fermi level of as-grown ZnO significantly, low formation energy of the ionic donors, and passivation of Li_Zn^/ in the form of (Li_Zn OH_O)^× and (Li_Zn Li_i)^×, prevents realization of significant/stable p-type activity in Li doped ZnO under equilibrium conditions.
Remark Link
ID=191

Characteristics of SrCo1 − xSnxO3 − δ cathode materials for use in solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Chun-Ting Yeh, Chien-Chung Huang, Hsi-Chuan Lu
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 227, Pages: 10–16
Time of Publication: 2012-10
Abstract In this study, introduction of tin ions in the SrCoO3 − δ oxide is attempted to modify its electrochemical behavior for serving as a cathode of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). Doping of tin ions appears to stabilize the cubic Pm-3m phase of the SrCo1 − ySnyO3 − δ ceramics but generates SrSnO3 precipitates and inhibits the grain growth as y value rises to a level greater than 10%. Obtained at 550 °C, the maximum electrical conductivity of SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3 − δ reads 545 S cm− 1. Single cells with a structure of NiO–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2 − δ (SDC)/SDC/SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3 − δ–SDC are built and characterized. Though SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3 − δ is regarded as an MIEC (mixed ionic/electronic conductivity material), adding SDC to SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3 − δ guarantees good adhesion to and fine electrical contact with the electrolyte layer, thereby contributing to the reduction in R0 and RP values. The single cell with the SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3 − δ–SDC composite cathode at 700 °C registers respectively an R0 value of 0.044 Ω cm2 and an RP value of 0.109 Ω cm2. In the absence of microstructure optimization and hermetic sealing of cells, a high power density of 0.847 W cm− 2 is reached. SrCo1 − ySnyO3 − δ thus emerges to be a promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs applications.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Cathode; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark Link
ID=190

Investigation of La1−xSrxCrO3−∂ (x ~ 0.1) as Membrane for Hydrogen Production

Authors Yngve Larring, Camilla Vigen, Florian Ahouanto, Marie-Laure Fontaine, Thijs Peters, Jens B. Smith, Truls Norby and Rune Bredesen
Source
Membranes
Volume: 2, Issue: 3, Pages: 665-686
Time of Publication: 2012-09
Abstract Various inorganic membranes have demonstrated good capability to separate hydrogen from other gases at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen-permeable, dense, mixed proton-electron conducting ceramic oxides offer superior selectivity and thermal stability, but chemically robust candidates with higher ambipolar protonic and electronic conductivity are needed. In this work, we present for the first time the results of various investigations of La1−xSrxCrO3−∂ membranes for hydrogen production. We aim in particular to elucidate the material’s complex transport properties, involving co-ionic transport of oxide ions and protons, in addition to electron holes. This opens some new possibilities for efficient heat and mass transfer management in the production of hydrogen. Conductivity measurements as a function of pH2 at constant pO2 exhibit changes that reveal a significant hydration and presence of protons. The flux and production of hydrogen have been measured under different chemical gradients. In particular, the effect of water vapor in the feed and permeate gas stream sides was investigated with the aim of quantifying the ratio of hydrogen production by hydrogen flux from feed to permeate and oxygen flux the opposite way (“water splitting”). Deuterium labeling was used to unambiguously prove flux of hydrogen species.
Keywords hydrogen transport membrane; proton permeation; oxygen permeation; water splitting
Remark Link
ID=188

Transient Oxygen Permeation and Surface Catalytic Properties of Lanthanum Cobaltite Membrane under Oxygen–Methane Gradient

Author Tyler T. Norton and Y. S. Lin
Source
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
Volume: 51, Issue: 39, Pages: 12917–12925
Time of Publication: 2012-09
Abstract Oxygen permeation through mixed-conducting ceramic membranes in an air/methane gradient is important for their applications in membrane reactors for air separation and partial oxidation of hydrocarbons. This study examines transient characteristics of oxygen permeation and surface catalytic properties of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (LSCF) membranes in an oxygen/methane gradient for an extended period of time. Upon exposure to an oxygen/methane gradient, the oxygen permeation flux of the membrane increases to a maximum at around 55 h, then decreases and reaches a steady-state value at around 200 h. The maximum and steady-state flux is approximately 60% and 30% higher than the initial flux of the fresh membrane, respectively. The surface catalytic properties of the membrane exposed to methane also change with the exposure time in a similar fashion. However, the apparent activation energy for oxygen permeation for the membranes at various stages of the transient study is nearly constant while the effects of temperature, feed pressure, and sweep flow rate on catalytic properties are also similar for the fresh and aged membranes. The surface of a LSCF membrane reacts with methane resulting in a formation of a thin porous layer which changes the surface catalytic properties. The membrane surface becomes more active for reaction with increased selectivity for carbon monoxide formation upon exposure to methane. This lowers oxygen partial pressure in the permeate side and increases the driving force for oxygen permeation and, therefore, increases oxygen permeation flux. Under the studied experimental conditions the membrane can reach steady-state for continuous operation.
Remark Link
ID=185

Investigating Reliability on Fuel Cell Model Identification. Part II: An Estimation Method for Stochastic Parameters

Authors L. Tsikonis, S. Diethelm, H. Seiler, A. Nakajo, J. Van herle, D. Favrat
Source
Fuel Cells
Time of Publication: 2012-08
Abstract An alternative way to process data from polarization measurements for fuel cell model validation is proposed. The method is based on re- and subsampling of I–V data, with which repetitive estimations are obtained for the model parameters. This way statistics such as standard deviations and correlations between the parameters may be experimentally derived. Histograms may also be produced, approximating the probability distributions that they follow. Two experimental case studies are discussed. In the first case, observations are made on the behavior of the parameter values for two mathematical models. As the number of data points (measurement points) employed in the estimation of the parameters increases, parameters with high variances converge to specific values. On the contrary, parameters with small variances diverge linearly. The parameters' histograms do not usually follow normal distributions rather they show a connection between the number of peaks in the graphs and correlations of the parameters. The second case study is an application on a fast degraded SOFC button cell, where the values and the histograms of the parameters are compared before and after degradation.
Keywords Data Fitting; Design of Experiments; Diagnostics; Fast Degradation; Identification; Parameter Estimation; Polarization Curves; Robust Regression; Solid Oxide Fuel cells; Stein's Paradox
Remark DOI: 10.1002/fuce.201200031
Link
ID=182

Sr1−xPrxCo0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramic as a cathode material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Hsi-Chuan Lu, Chien-Chung Huang, Chun-Ting Yeh
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 37, Issue: 17, Pages: 12548–12556
Time of Publication: 2012-10
Abstract In this study, the physical properties of the Sr1−xPrxCo0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramics were measured and their potential for use as a cathode material of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) was evaluated. A cubic phase was retained in all of the Sr1−xPrxCo0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramics. Analysis of the temperature-dependent conductivity found the SrCo0.95Sn0.05O3−δ and Sr0.9Pr0.1Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramics exhibiting semiconductor-like behavior below 550 °C and metal-like behavior above the same temperature. The Sr0.8Pr0.2Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ and Sr0.7Pr0.3Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramics, however, reported a metal-like conductivity in the whole temperature range. The electrical conductivities of the Sr0.8Pr0.2Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ ceramic at 500 °C and 700 °C read respectively 1250 S/cm and 680 S/cm, both of which were superior than those in most of the common perovskites. Single cells with a structure of NiO–Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ (SDC)/SDC/Sr0.8Pr0.2Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ-SDC were built and characterized. Addition of SDC in Sr0.8Pr0.2Co0.95Sn0.05O3−δ emerged to be a crucial factor reducing the ohmic resistance (R0) and polarization resistance (RP) of the cell by facilitating a better adhesion to and electrical contact with the electrolyte layer. The R0 and RP of the cell read respectively 0.068 Ω cm2 and 0.0571 Ω cm2 at 700 °C and 0.298 Ω cm2 and 1.310 Ω cm2 at 550 °C. With no microstructure optimization and hermetic sealing of the cells, maximum power density (MPD) and open circuit voltage (OCV) reached respectively 0.872 W/cm2 and 0.77 V at 700 °C and 0.482 W/cm2 and 0.86 V at 550 °C. It is evident that Sr1−xPrxCo0.95Sn0.05O3−δ is a promising cathode material for IT-SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Cathode; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark Link
ID=181

Nitrogen and hydrogen defect equilibria in Ca12Al14O33: a combined experimental and computational study

Authors Jonathan M. Polfus , Kazuaki Toyoura , Charles H. Hervoches , Martin F. Sunding , Isao Tanaka and Reidar Haugsrud
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry
Volume: 22, Pages: 15828-15835
Time of Publication: 2012-07
Abstract The defect structure of mayenite is investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) defect calculations; in situ electrical conductivity measurements in NH3 atmosphere at high temperature; and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas phase mass spectrometry (GP-MS) of NH3 treated specimens. The computational results suggest that nitrogen is primarily incorporated substitutionally on oxygen sites as NH−2 and N3−. The concentration of nitrogen was estimated to be within the same order of magnitude by XPS, GP-MS and DFT, yielding a stoichiometry close to Ca12Al14O31.5N0.5:(NH2)0.5O0.5 which corresponds well with that obtained by Boysen et al. from similarly treated samples. Out diffusion of nitrogen was found to occur around 700 °C in Ar by XPS, GP-MS and conductivity measurements, also in accordance with Boysen et al. The conductivity measurements showed that NH3 treatment had a significant effect on the defect structure of the material which became evident only after replacing the NH3 atmosphere with Ar: the conductivity increased abruptly due to a temporary non-equilibrium reduction of the material as nitrogen diffuses out while the lack of a sufficiently large source of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere prevents the specimen from re-oxidizing. Further, based on the computational results and the pH2 dependency on conductivity after NH3 treatment, we propose dissolution of hydride ions from H2 in the reduced and highly conductive post-NH3 state.
Remark Link
ID=178

Nd-doped Ba(Ce,Zr)O3 − δ proton conductors for application in conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels

Authors Wojciech Zaj&#261;c , Emil Hanc, Agnieszka Gorzkowska-Sobas, Konrad &#346;wierczek, Janina Molenda
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 225, Pages: 297–303
Time of Publication: 2012-10
Abstract The paper presents crystal structure, transport properties, chemical stability in CO2 atmosphere and thin film membrane preparation for materials from the Ba(Ce1 − xZrx)0.9Nd0.1O2.95 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) group of perovskite-type structure oxides. Transformation of crystal structure from orthorhombic Pnma to orthorhombic Imma and cubic with increasing xZr was observed along with linear decrease of pseudo-cubic unit cell volume and free lattice volume. Electrical conductivity of bulk and grain boundary was determined in dry air, as well as in air humidified with H2O or D2O. The highest proton conductivity was observed for material with xZr = 0.25. Further increase of Zr content led to decrease of conductivity as high as 2 orders of magnitude. This effect was coupled with bell-shape dependence of activation energy and pre-exponential term. Such behavior was explained as superimposed effects of high proton mobility for zirconium-rich materials due to cubic symmetry and cerium-rich materials due to softness of oxygen–oxygen separation distance, along with high proton concentration for cerium-rich perovskites. The deteriorating effect of grain boundaries on total electrical conductivity was far more pronounced for Zr-rich materials than in the case of Ce-rich ones. Declining grain boundary conductivity was attributed to both increase of number of grain boundaries and decrease of inherent grain boundary conductivity for Zr-rich samples. The highest chemical stability in CO2 atmosphere was achieved for high-Zr content materials, on the contrary, for BaCe0.9Nd0.1O2.95 in CO2 atmosphere, the decomposition onset temperature was below 500 °C. 2 μm thin film membrane of Ba(Ce0.75Zr0.25)0.9Nd0.1O2.95 was successfully prepared on c-plane sapphire and fused silica substrates. Film's crystal structure matched that of the bulk material. The electrical conductivity of thermally treated film obtained on c-plane sapphire in wet air was 3.7 × 10− 4 S cm− 1 at 600 °C.
Keywords Proton conductors; BaCeO3&#8211;BaZrO3 solid solutions; Isotope effect; Grain boundary effect; Thin films
Remark Link
ID=176

Hydrogen permeation, transport properties and microstructure of Ca-doped LaNbO4 and LaNb3O9 composites

Authors Wen Xing, Guttorm E. Syvertsen, Tor Grande, Zuoan Li, Reidar Haugsrud
Source
Journal of Membrane Science
Volume: 415-416, Pages: 878–885
Time of Publication: 2012-10
Abstract Two composites consisting of the proton conducting Ca-doped LaNbO4 and electron conducting LaNb3O9 with respectively 90 and 70 vol% LaNbO4 were prepared by spark plasma sintering. The amount of hydrogen produced at the sweep side was measured as a function of temperature and pH2 gradient under wet and dry sweep gas conditions. The hydrogen flux increases with increasing temperature and feed-sidepH2. The flux is significantly higher for the 70 vol% LaNbO4 composite than the 90 vol% LaNbO4 composite. Ambipolar conductivities calculated from the flux data showed the same pH2 dependence for both composites. The electrical conductivity of the 70 vol% LaNbO4 composite was characterized as a function of temperature under wet hydrogen. The microstructure and phase distribution of the two composites are analyzed and their transport properties with different flux limiting processes are discussed. An increased hydrogen production with wet compared to dry sweep gas is concluded to reflect water splitting due to transport of oxygen from the permeate to the feed side.
Keywords Hydrogen flux; Proton conductivity; Ceramic-ceramic composite; LaNbO4; LaNb3O9; Ambipolar conductivity; Water splitting
Remark Link
ID=174

High Power Plasma Sprayed Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ Cathode

Authors Chang-sing Hwang , Chun-Huang Tsai, Chun-Liang Chang, Jen-Feng Yu, Sheng-Hui Nien
Source
Procedia Engineering
Volume: 36, Pages: 81–87
Time of Publication: 2012-05
Abstract The cells with porous Ni/Fe(∼10 wt%) metal plate as a supporting substrate, double layers of La0.75Sr0.25Cr0.5Mn0.5 O3-δ (LSCM) and nanostructured Ce0.55La0.45O2-δ/Ni (LDC/Ni) as an anode, LDC as an anode interlayer, La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) as an electrolyte, LSGM/Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-δ (SSC) as a cathode interlayer and SSC as a cathode current collector, were prepared by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) coating processes followed by a heating treatment. The current-voltage-power and AC impedance measurement results show that the prepared cell heat-treated at 850 °C for 3 hours in air with a dead load of 1000 g cm-2 has an attracting performance. The measured maximum output power densities of this cell have reached 0.777, 0.742, 0.659, 0.542, 0.393, and 0.250 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600, and 550 °C respectively. The measured ohmic and polarization resistances are 0.241, 0.254, 0.282, 0.328, 0.42, 0.62 and 0.055, 0.064, 0.083, 0.128, 0.23, 0.471 Ω cm2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600, and 550 °C respectively. After correction of the resistance inside the ProboStat system, the predicted actual maximum power densities that a cell can deliver are 1.95, 1.613, 1.186, 0.823, 0.512, and 0.293 W cm-2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600, and 550 °C respectively.
Keywords Atmospheric plasma spray; solid oxide fuel cells; metal-supported; nanostructured; Sm0.5Sr0.5CoO3-&#948;
Remark Link
ID=170

Polymorphism and Oxide Ion Migration Pathways in Fluorite-Type Bismuth Vanadate, Bi46V8O89

Authors Xiaojun Kuang, Julia L. Payne, James D. Farrell, Mark R. Johnson, and Ivana Radosavljevic Evans
Source
Chem. Mater.
Volume: 24, Issue: 11, Pages: 2162–2167
Time of Publication: 2012-05
Abstract We report the synthesis, structural characterization, and ionic conductivity measurements for a new polymorph of bismuth vanadate Bi46V8O89, and an ab initio molecular dynamics study of this oxide ion conductor. Structure determination was carried out using synchrotron powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data; it was found that β-Bi46V8O89 crystallizes in space group C2/m and that the key differences between this and the previously reported α-form are the distribution of Bi and V cations and the arrangement of the VO4 coordination polyhedra in structure. β-Bi46V8O89 exhibits good oxide ion conductivity, with σ = 0.01–0.1 S/cm between 600 and 850 °C, which is about an order of magnitude higher than yttria stabilized zirconia. The ab initio molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the ion migration pathways include vacancy diffusion through the Bi–O sublattice, as well as the O2– exchanges between the Bi–O and the V–O sublattices, facilitated by the variability of the vanadium coordination environment and the rotational freedom of the VOx coordination polyhedra.
Keywords Oxide ion conductors; bismuth vanadates; X-ray and neutron diffraction; AIMD simulations
Remark Publication Date (Web): May 3, 2012
Link
ID=169

SrCo1−xSbxO3−δ cathode materials prepared by Pechini method for solid oxide fuel cell applications

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Hsi-Chuan Lu, Yung-Fu Hsu, Chien-Chung Huang, Chun-Ting Yeh
Source
Ceramics International
Volume: 38, Issue: 7, Pages: 5941–5947
Time of Publication: 2012-09
Abstract In this study, SrCo1−ySbyO3−δ powders were prepared by a modified Pechini method. According to the study results, the cubic Pm3m phase of the SrCo1−ySbyO3−δ ceramics was obtained as 10% of cobalt ions were substituted by antimony ions. Doping of Sb3+ ions appeared both to stabilize the Pm3m phase of the SrCo1−ySbyO3−δ ceramics and to enhance densification and retard grain growth. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the SrCo1−xSbxO3−δ ceramics increased with the content of the antimony ions, ranging from 10.17 to 15.37 ppm/°C at temperatures lower than the inflection point (ranging from 450 °C to 550 °C) and from 22.16 to 29.29 ppm/°C at higher temperatures. For the SrCo0.98Sb0.02O3−δ ceramic, electrical conductivity reached a maximum of 507 S/cm at 450 °C. The ohmic and polarization resistances of the single cell with the pure SrCo0.98Sb0.02O3−δ cathode at 700 °C read respectively 0.298 Ω cm2 and 0.560 Ω cm2. The single cell with the SrCo0.98Sb0.02O3−δ-SDC composite cathode appeared to reduce the impedances with the R0 and RP at 700 °C reading respectively 0.109 Ω cm2 and 0.127 Ω cm2. Without microstructure optimization and measured at 700 °C, the single cells with the pure SrCo0.98Sb0.02O3−δ cathode and the SrCo0.98Sb0.02O3−δ-SDC composite cathode, demonstrated maximum power densities of 0.100 W/cm2 and 0.487 W/cm2. Apparently, SrCo1−ySbyO3−δ is a potential cathode for use in IT-SOFCs.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; Cathode; Impedance; Cell performance
Remark Available online 19 April 2012
Link
ID=166

Preparation and characterization of composite membranes based on sulfonated PEEK and AlPO4 for PEMFCs

Authors Vijay Shankar Rangasamy, Savitha Thayumanasundaram, Niels De Greef, Jin Won Seo, Jean-Pierre Locquet
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 219, Pages: 83–89
Time of Publication: 2012-05
Abstract Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) and their composites are considered one of the most promising alternatives for Nafion, the industry benchmark for electrolytic membranes in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. In the present study, PEEK was non-homogeneously sulfonated using concentrated H2SO4 at different temperatures (room temperature, 60 °C, and 80 °C) and time durations (5, 7, 48, and 72 h). Composite membranes of SPEEK with different weight ratios of AlPO4 synthesized by sol–gel were also prepared. Depending on the degree of sulfonation (DS), the Ion Exchange Capacity (IEC) of the membranes varied from 1.06 to 2.9 meq g− 1. XRD results show the increasing amorphous nature of the membranes with increase in IEC and DS value. The water uptake of the membranes also increased with DS. Simultaneous TGA–FTIR measurement of the composite membranes showed better thermal stability compared to pure SPEEK membranes. The water uptake and proton conductivity of the composite SPEEK membranes were found to be lower than that of pure SPEEK membranes, while the composite membranes exhibited a better swelling behavior and mechanical stability than the pure SPEEK samples.
Keywords Proton exchange membrane (PEM); Composite membranes; Sulfonated poly(etheretherketone) (SPEEK); Proton conductivity; Ion exchange capacity (IEC); Sol&#8211;gel
Remark Link
ID=163

High temperature electronic properties of BaTiO3 – Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 – BiInO3 for capacitor applications

Author Natthaphon Raengthon and David P. Cann
Source
Journal of Electroceramics
Volume: 28, Issue: 2-3, Pages: 165-171
Time of Publication: 2012-03
Abstract Solid solutions xBaTiO3 – (1-x)(0.5Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 – 0.5BiInO3), where x = 0.95–0.60, were prepared by conventional mixed oxide method. The single phase perovskite structure was obtained for the composition with x ≥ 0.75. Phase transformation from tetragonal to pseudocubic was observed from x-ray diffraction patterns when x decreased from 0.95 to 0.75. In tetragonal phase region, x ≥ 0.90, the increase of Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 – BiInO3 content decreased the tetragonality and the temperature at which the relative permittivity is maximum (Tmax). The increase in lattice parameter and Tmax were observed in the pseudocubic phase region, x < 0.90. Additionally, a highly broad and diffuse phase transition was observed from the dielectric data in the pseudocubic phase region. The introduction of Ba vacancies in compositions with x = 0.80 and 0.75 also improved dielectric loss at high temperatures. The incorporation of BiInO3 into the BaTiO3 – Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 compound was also found to improve the temperature coefficient of the relative permittivity, with values as low as approximately −1,000 ppm/K. Overall, ternary perovskite solid solutions based on adding Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 – BiInO3 to BaTiO3 shows excellent potential for high temperature capacitor applications
Keywords High temperature capacitor &#8211; Bi-based perovskite &#8211; BiInO3 &#8211; Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O3 &#8211; BaTiO3 &#8211; Insulation resistance
Remark Link
ID=158

50 mol% indium substituted BaTiO3: Characterization of structure and conductivity

Authors S.M.H. Rahman, C.S. Knee, I. Ahmed, S.G. Eriksson, R. Haugsrud
Source
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Volume: 37, Issue: 9, Pages: 7975–7982
Time of Publication: 2012-05
Abstract BaTi0.5In0.5O3−δ was prepared by solid state reaction at 1400 °C. Rietveld analysis of high resolution X-ray powder diffraction data indicated phase pure as-prepared material that adopts a cubic perovskite structure with a = 4.1536(1) Å. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed the presence of significant levels of protons in the as-prepared material and 57% of the theoretically achievable protonation was attained on exposure to a humid environment at 185 °C. After hydration the cell parameter increased to 4.1623(1) Å. Electrical conductivity was measured both with fixed and variable frequency ac impedance methods as a function of temperature, oxygen-, water vapour- and heavy water vapour partial pressures. In the temperature range 400–800 °C a slight increase in the total conductivity with increasing oxygen partial pressure is encountered, characteristic of a contribution from p-type charge carriers. The effect of the water vapour pressure on conductivity below 600 °C is much more prominent indicative of dominant proton conduction. At 300 °C the total conductivity in wet O2 was estimated to be 9.30 × 10−5 S/cm. At T > 800 °C the material is a pure oxide ion conductor.
Keywords Barium titanate; Perovskite; Brownmillerite; Proton conductivity; X-ray diffraction; Impedance spectroscopy
Remark Link
ID=157

Ion mobility, phase transitions, and conductivity of crystal phases in KF-CsF-SbF3-H2O system according to data of NMR and impedance spectroscopy

Authors V. Ya. Kavun, L. A. Zemnukhova, A. I. Ryabov, A. B. Podgorbunskii, S. V. Gnedenkov, S. L. Sinebryukhov and V. I. Sergienko
Source
Russian Journal of Electrochemistry
Volume: 48, Issue: 1, Pages: 104-110
Time of Publication: 2012-01
Abstract The methods of NMR, thermogravimetric analysis, and impedance spectroscopy were used to study ion mobility, phase transitions, and ion conductivity in crystal phases in the KF-CsF-SbF3-H2O system. Analysis of 19F NMR spectra allowed tracing the dynamics of ion movement in the fluoride sublattice under temperature variations, determining their types and temperature ranges, in which they are implemented. The observed phase transitions in potassium-cesium fluoroantimonates(III) are phase transitions to the superionic state. It is found that the predominant form of ion movement in the high-temperature modifications formed as a result of phase transitions becomes diffusion of fluoride ions. According to the results of electrophysical studies the K1−xCsx SbF4 (x ≤ 0.2) high-temperature phases are superionic. Their conductivity reaches the values of ∼10−2 to 10−3 S/cm at 463–483 K. The high-temperature phases are stabilized under cooling, which results in a significant increase in conductivity at the room temperature.
Keywords potassium-cesium tetrafluoroantimonates(III) &#8211; ion mobility &#8211; phase transitions &#8211; conductivity &#8211; NMR spectra
Remark DOI: 10.1134/S1023193512010090
Link
ID=148

Fabrication and electrochemical properties of cathode-supported solid oxide fuel cells via slurry spin coating

Authors Min Chen, Jing-Li Luo, Karl T. Chuang, Alan R. Sanger
Source
Electrochimica Acta
Volume: 63, Pages: 277–286
Time of Publication: 2012-02
Abstract A cathode-supported SOFC consisting of LSM (La0.8Sr0.2MnO3-δ) cathode supporter, LSM-Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ (SDC) cathode functional layer (CFL), yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/SDC bi-layered electrolyte and Ni-YSZ anode layer was fabricated by a slurry spin coating technique. The influence of the porosity in both the CFL and cathode supporter on the electrochemical properties of the cells has been investigated. It was found that properly controlling the porosity in the CFL would improve the performance of the cells using O2 in the cathode side (O2-cells), with a maximum power density (MPD) value achieving as high as 0.58 W•cm−2 at 850 °C. However, this improvement is not so evident for the cells using air in the cathode side (air-cells). When increasing the porosity in the cathode-supporter, a significant increase of the power density for the air cells due to the decreasing Rconc,c(concentration polarization to the cell resistance) can be ascertained. In terms of our analysis on various electrochemical parameters, the Ract (activation polarization to the cell resistance) is assumed to be mainly responsible for the impedance arcs measured under the OCV condition, with a negligible Rconc,cvalue being able to be detected in our impedances. In this case, a significant decreasing size of the impedance arcs due to the increasing porosity in the cathode supporter would correspond to a decrease of the Ract values, which was proved to be induced by the decreasingRconc,c.
Keywords Slurry spin coating; Cathode-supported SOFC; Concentration polarization; Activation polarization; Power density
Remark Link
ID=143

Hydration and proton conductivity in LaAsO4

Authors
Source
Journal of Materials Chemistry
Volume: 22, Issue: 4, Pages: 1652-1661
Time of Publication: 2012-04
Abstract Incorporation and transport of protonic defects have been studied in nominally undoped and 1 and 3 mol% Sr-doped LaAsO4 prepared by a co-precipitation route. AC impedance of the materials was measured as a function of temperature (1150 to 400 °C), pO2 (1 to 1 × 10−5 atm) and pH2O (0.025 to 3 × 10−5 atm). The bulk conductivities generally decrease with decreasing temperature and moreover with decreasing pH2O within the whole temperature range. At the highest temperatures, a small decrease in the conductivity with decreasing pO2 was also observed. The defect structure of Sr-doped LaAsO4 appears to be dominated by oxygen vacancies in the form of pyroarsenate ions, As2O4−7, in dry atmospheres at high temperatures and by protonic defects in the form of hydrogen arsenate ions, HAsO2−4, in wet atmospheres. A significant isotope effect shows that protons contribute to the total conductivity at all temperatures under wet conditions and predominate at temperatures below [similar]850 °C. The remaining contributions are attributed to oxide ions and electron holes. The extracted hydration thermodynamics are comparable to those determined for other LnXO4 (X = P, V, Nb, Ta) compounds, and the enthalpy of mobility of protons (86 ± 5 and 88 ± 5 kJ mol−1 for the 1 and 3 mol% doped samples, respectively) follows an apparent trend for the isostructural LaXO4 (X = P, As, V) series with the enthalpy of mobility of protons decreasing with increasing radius of the X-site cation. However, the partial proton conductivities of Sr-doped LaAsO4 are lower than those determined for acceptor doped LaPO4 and LaVO4 for which the possible reasons are discussed.
Remark Link
ID=139

Effects of (LaSr)(CoFeCu)O3-δ Cathodes on the Characteristics of Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Chun-Ting Yeh, Yuh-Ruey Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 201, Pages: 18–25
Time of Publication: 2012-03
Abstract In this study, Cu2+ ions doped La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ cathodes are prepared for use in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). The maximum electrical conductivities of the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.7Cu0.1O3−δ (438 S cm−1) and the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.1Fe0.8Cu0.1O3−δ (340 S cm−1) discs are higher than that of the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ disc (LSCF; 81 S cm−1) sintered at 1100 °C. The substitution of Cu2+ over Fe3+ leads to a higher coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), while the replacement of Co3+ by Cu2+ results in a lower CTE. Single cells with the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.7Cu0.1O3−δ, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.1Fe0.8Cu0.1O3−δ cathodes operating at 650 °C and 550 °C show similar ohmic resistance (R0) values while the polarization resistance (RP) values of the cells with the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.7Cu0.1O3−δ and a0.6Sr0.4Co0.1Fe0.8Cu0.1O3−δ cathodes are slightly lower than that of the single cell with the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ cathode, indicating that the Cu2+-doped LSCF cathode exhibits a greater electrochemical catalytic activity for oxygen reduction. Maximum power densities of the cells with the La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.7Cu0.1O3−δ, and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.1Fe0.8Cu0.1O3−δ cathodes operating at 700 °C read respectively 1.07, 1.15, and 1.24 W cm−2. It is evident that the doping of Cu2+ ions in LSCF is beneficial to the electrochemical performance of the cells.
Keywords Solid oxide fuel cell; cathode; cathode; impedance; Cell performance
Remark Link
ID=135

Autothermal Reforming of Methane in Proton-Conducting Ceramic Membrane Reactor

Authors Jay Kniep , Matthew Anderson , and Jerry Y.S. Lin
Source
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
Volume: 50, Issue: 22, Pages: 12426–12432
Time of Publication: 2011-10
Abstract Endothermic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production requires heat input with selective oxidation of methane. Dense SrCe0.75Zr0.20Tm0.05O3-δ perovskite membranes were combined with a reforming catalyst to demonstrate the feasibility of a heat-exchange membrane reactor for steam reforming of methane coupled with selective oxidation of permeated hydrogen. The reforming catalyst used was a prereduced nickel based catalyst supported on γ-Al2O3. Hydrogen produced via the steam reforming of methane or water gas shift reaction was able to diffuse through the catalyst bed and transport through the membrane. The permeated hydrogen reacted with oxygen (from air) to produce heat for the steam reforming of methane on the other side of the membrane. The membrane reactor avoids the use of an expensive air separation unit to produce pure oxygen. The influence of experimental conditions, such as temperature, gas hourly space velocity, and the steam to carbon (S/C) ratio, on the membrane reactor was investigated. SrCe0.75Zr0.20Tm0.05O3-δ showed good chemical stability in steam reforming conditions as X-ray diffraction analysis of the membrane surface exposed to steam-reforming conditions for 425 h showed only minor CeO2 formation. The experimental data demonstrate the feasibility of using a proton conducting ceramic membrane in the heat-exchange membrane reactor for steam reforming of methane coupled with selective oxidation.
Remark Link
ID=134

Post-heat treatment pressure effect on performances of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying

Authors Chun-Huang Tsai, Chang-sing Hwang, Chun-Liang Chang, Jen-Feng Yu, Sheng-Hui Nien
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 197, Pages: 145–153
Time of Publication: 2012-01
Abstract The nickel metal-supported cells fabricated by atmospheric plasma spraying are post-heat treated in air at 960 °C for 2 h with different pressures. The current–voltage–power and AC impedance measurements show the prepared cell with an applied pressure of 450 g cm−2 in the post-heat treatment has a better electrochemical performance at test temperatures ≥ 650 °C. For test temperatures < 650 °C, the maximum power densities at 450 g cm−2 pressure are about the same as the maximum power densities at 1250 g cm−2 pressure. The SEM micrograph indicates that the cathode including the cathode interlayer and the cathode collector is the most porous region in the cell. AC impedance results show this cathode is the most sensitive part to the applied pressure in the post-heat treatment and the cell with 450 g cm−2 pressure has the smallest low frequency intercept R2 and the polarization resistance Rp at temperatures from 600 to 800 °C. The performance durability test of the cell post-heat treated at 450 g cm−2 pressure shows a degradation rate of 0.0087 mV h−1 or 0.0026 mW h−1 at 300 mA cm−2 constant current density and 750 °C test temperature.
Keywords Atmospheric plasma spray; Solid oxide fuel cells; Metal-supported; Nanostructured
Remark Link
ID=126

Partial Oxidation of Methane and Oxygen Permeation in SrCoFeOx Membrane Reactor with Different Catalysts

Author Jay Kniep and Y.S. Lin
Source
Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.
Volume: 50, Issue: 13, Pages: 7941–7948
Time of Publication: 2011-05
Abstract Partial oxidation of methane (CH4) and oxygen permeation in a dense SrCoFeOx disk membrane reactor were studied with the reducing side of the membrane packed with different catalysts (catalyst support γ-Al2O3, La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ, and 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al2O3) of increasing reaction activities for CH4 oxidation. The influence of temperature, flow rates, and inlet CH4 concentration (diluted with helium) on the performance of the different membrane reactors was investigated. The oxygen permeation flux and CH4 conversion increased in the following order: γ-Al2O3 < La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3−δ < 10% Ni/γ-Al2O3. The membrane reactor with the reforming catalyst of 10 wt % Ni/γ-Al2O3 had the highest CH4 conversion (90%), CO selectivity (97%), and oxygen permeation flux (2.40 mL/(cm2 min)) at 900 °C. The improvement of the oxygen permeation through the membranes with different catalysts emphasizes the effect of the CH4 oxidation reaction rate on the reducing side of the membrane on the oxygen permeation flux through the mixed-conducting ceramic membranes. Under identical conditions, the oxygen permeation flux through mixed-conducting ceramic membrane with a reducing gas is a strong function of the catalytic activity for the oxidation of the reducing gas.
Remark Link
ID=121

Solid oxide fuel cells with Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ electrolyte film deposited by novel aerosol deposition method

Authors Sea-Fue Wang, Yung-Fu Hsu, Chih-Hao Wang and Chin-Ting Yeh
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 196, Issue: 11, Pages: 5064-5069
Time of Publication: 2011-06
Abstract In this study, dense electrolyte ceramic Sm0.2Ce0.8O2−δ (SDC) thin films are successfully deposited on NiO-SDC anode substrate by aerosol deposition (AD) with oxygen as the carrier gas at the substrate temperature ranging from room temperature to 300 °C. To remove the effect of humidity on the starting powders, this study found that, in depositing SDC films, having the starting powders preheat-treated at 200 °C helped generate a smooth and dense layer, though a lower deposition rate was achieved. At a deposition time of 22 min, SDC films with a uniform thickness of 1.5 μm and grain sizes of ≈67 nm are obtained. SOFC single cells are then built by screen printing a LSCF cathode on the anode-supported substrates with SDC electrolyte. The cross-sectional SEM micrographs exhibit highly dense, granular, and crack-free microstructures. The open circuit voltages (OCV) of the single cells decrease with the rise in temperature, dropping from 0.81 V at 500 °C to 0.59 V at 700 °C. Maximum power densities (MPD) decline with decreasing operating temperature from 0.34 to 0.01 W cm−2 due to the increase of the R0 and RP of the single cells. The electrochemical results testify to the fine quality of SDC films as well as illustrate the electrolyte thickness effect and the effect of mixed ionic and electronic conduction of the SDC electrolyte in the reducing atmosphere.
Keywords
ID=117

Structure, Water Uptake, and Electrical Conductivity of TiP2O7

Authors
Source
Journal of the American Ceramic Society
Volume: 94, Issue: 5, Pages: 1514–1522
Time of Publication: 2011-05
Abstract We report here on the structure of TiP2O7 and electrical properties of nominally acceptor (Sc, Fe)-doped TiP2O7 synthesized by an aqueous phosphoric acid route. Structural characterization, including studies of the high-temperature phase transition in TiP2O7, was carried out by powder X-ray and neutron diffraction. Ceramic disks were sintered by the spark plasma technique and their conductivities were characterized as a function of p(O2) and p(H2O) in the temperature range of 500°–1000°C by means of AC constant frequency measurements and impedance spectroscopy. As reported earlier, the acceptor doping appears not to influence the defect structure of TiP2O7 significantly. Effects of H+/D+ isotope shift were utilized to identify proton conduction. The conductivity was independent of p(O2) at 500°–900°C under oxidizing conditions suggesting predominantly protonic conduction at these temperatures. Under reducing atmosphere n-type conductivity contributed to the total conductivity at the higher temperatures. p(H2O) dependencies of the conductivities are interpreted in terms of a defect-chemical model involving protons and oxygen interstitials as the dominating defects. The uptake of water was studied by thermogravimetry at high p(H2O) and the thermodynamics of the hydration reaction was derived. Finally, parameters for the mobility of protons were extracted by combining the conductivity and thermogravimetry data.
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ID=112

δ-Phase to defect fluorite (order–disorder) transition in the R2O3–MO2 (R = Sc; Tm; Lu; M = Zr; Hf) systems

Authors A.V. Shlyakhtina, D.A. Belov, S.Yu. Stefanovich, I.V. Kolbanev, O.K. Karyagina, A.V. Egorov, S.V. Savilov and L.G. Shcherbakova
Source
Materials Research Bulletin
Volume: 46, Issue: 4, Pages: 512–517
Time of Publication: 2011-04
Abstract We have studied the δ-phase to defectfluoriteF* (order–disorder) transition in the R4M3O12 (R = Sc, Tm, Lu; M = Zr, Hf) compounds. The temperature of the δ–F* phasetransition in Tm4Zr3O12 is ∼1600 °C. The rate of this transition in R4Zr3O12 (R = Sc, Tm, Lu) decreases markedly with decreasing difference in ionic radius between the R3+ and Zr4+, leading to stabilization of the δ-phasesR4Zr3O12 with R = Sc and Lu at high temperatures (∼1600 °C). During slow cooling (5 °C/h), the high-temperature defectfluoritesF*-R2Hf2O7 (R = Tm, Lu) decompose reversibly to form the δ-phasesR4Hf3O12. Some of the materials studied exhibit microdomains formation effects, typical of the fluorite-related oxide compounds in the R2O3–MO2 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) systems of the heavy rare earths. The high-temperature defectfluoritesF*-R4M3O12 (R = Tm, Lu; M = Zr, Hf) as a rule contain antiphase microdomains of δ-R4Zr3O12. After slow cooling (5 °C/h), such microdomains are large enough for the δ-phase to be detected by X-ray diffraction. The conductivity data for R4M3O12 (R = Sc, Tm, Lu; M = Zr, Hf) and Ln2Hf2O7 (Ln = Dy, Lu) prepared by different procedures show that the rhombohedral phasesδ-R4M3O12 (R = Sc, Tm, Lu; M = Zr, Hf) are poorer conductors than the defectfluorites, with 740 °C conductivity from 10−6 to 10−5 S/cm. The conductivity drops with decreasing rare-earth ionic radius and, judging from the Ea values obtained (1.04–1.37 eV), is dominated by oxygen ion transport. The highest conductivity, ∼6 × 10−4 S/cm at 740 °C, is offered by the rapidly cooled F*-Dy2Hf2O7. In the fluorite homologous series, oxygen ion conductivity decreases in the orderdefect pyrochlore > defectfluorite > δ-phase.
Keywords Fluorite; &#948;-Phases R4M3O12; Pyrochlore; Order&#8211;disorder transition; Antiphase microdomains; High-temperature conductivity
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ID=110

Proton conductivity in Sm2Sn2O7 pyrochlores

Authors K.E.J. Eurenius, E. Ahlberg and C.S. Knee
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 181, Issue: 35-36, Pages: 1577-1585
Time of Publication: 2010-11
Abstract The electrical conductivity of the pyrochlore systems, Sm2Sn2O7, Sm1.92Ca0.08Sn2O7 − δ and Sm2Sn1.92Y0.08O7 − δ was studied using impedance spectroscopy under wet and dry gas (O2 and Ar) in the temperature range 150–1000 °C. Enhancements of the bulk conductivity of all samples at temperatures up to ~ 550 °C were observed for wet conditions consistent with significant levels of proton conduction. The presence of dissolved protons in the acceptor-doped materials, Sm1.92Ca0.08Sn2O7 − δ and Sm2Sn1.92Y0.08O7 − δ, is supported by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Proton conduction was confirmed by isotope effects under heavy water (O2/D2O and Ar/D2O). The A-site substituted sample Sm1.92Ca0.08Sn2O7 − δ yielded the highest levels of proton conduction and displayed mixed ionic and electronic conduction under dry oxidising conditions. Electron hole conduction dominates in dry oxygen for Sm2Sn1.92Y0.08O7 − δ and Sm2Sn2O7. For the A-site doped sample bulk and grain boundary conduction could be separated. The specific grain boundary conduction was calculated using the brick layer model and was found to be two orders of magnitude lower compared to the bulk conductivity. The unexpected increase in conductivity seen for the undoped sample under wet gas is discussed in the context of structural disorder and possible filling of the un-occupied anion site in the pyrochlore structure by OH-groups.
Keywords Sm2Sn2O7; Proton conductor; Pyrochlore; Oxide ion conductivity; p-type conductivity; Infra-red spectroscopy; Thermogravimetric analysis
ID=105

Scandium stabilized zirconium thin films formation by e-beam technique

Authors Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis, Julius Dudonis, Oresta Katkausk&#279; and Darius Mil&#269;ius
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 184, Issue: 1, Pages: 10–13
Time of Publication: 2011-03
Abstract Scandiumstabilizedzirconium (10ScSZ) thin ceramic films were deposited by e-beam evaporation of (ZrO2)0.90(Sc2O3)0.10 micro powder (particle size 0.5 ÷ 0.7 μm). The influence of deposition rate on formed thinfilms microstructure and electrical properties was studied. 10ScSZ thinfilms were deposited on two types of different substrates: optical quartz (SiO2) and Alloy-600 (Fe–Ni–Cr) substrates. Deposition rate was changed from 2 to 16 Å/s to test its influence on thinfilmformation and its properties. The microstructure of formed 10ScSZ thin ceramic films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical parameters of formed thin ceramics were investigated in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1.0 MHz (in temperature range from 473 to 873 K). The ionic conductivity of the deposited electrolyte 10ScSZ thinfilms was determined by impedance spectroscopy. It was determined that the deposition rate (in range from 2 to 16 Å/s) has influence on crystallite size. It increases by increasing the deposition rate from 18.4 to 26.9 nm. The XRD measurements show that the formed 10ScSZ thinfilms do not repeat the crystallographic phase of the initial evaporated powder material—it is changes from rhombohedra (initial powder) to cubic (the formed thinfilms).
Keywords Scandium stabilized zirconium (ScSZ); Ionic conductivity; Electron beam deposition; Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)
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ID=94

The properties of scandium and cerium stabilized zirconium thin films formed by e-beam technique

Authors Darius Virbukas, Giedrius Laukaitis, Julius Dudonis and Darius Mil&#269;ius
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 188, Issue: 1, Pages: 46–49
Time of Publication: 2011-04
Abstract Scandium and ceriumstabilizedzirconium (10Sc1CeSZ) thin ceramic films were formed evaporating (ZrO2)0.89(CeO2)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10 micro powder using e-beam evaporation technique. The influence of deposition rate on formedthinfilms electrical properties and microstructure was studied. 10Sc1CeSZ thinfilms were deposited on two types of different substrates: optical quartz (SiO2) and Alloy 600 (Fe–Ni–Cr). Deposition rate was changed from 2 to 16 Å/s to understand its influence on thinfilm formation and other properties. The formed 10Sc1CeSZ thinfilms keep the cubic crystal structure as the initial evaporated powder material but change the main crystallographic peak from (111) to (200) for both types of substrate and used deposition rates. It was determined that the crystallites size increases from 19.0 to 24.9 nm and from 15.6 to 19.9 nm on optical quartz and Alloy 600 respectively by increasing the deposition rate (in range from 2 to 16 Å/s). The thinfilm density decreases by increasing the deposition rate. The ionic conductivity of 10Sc1CeSZ thinfilms was determined by impedance spectroscopy in the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1.0 MHz in temperature range from 473 K to 873 K. The best ionic conductivity σtot = 4.91 · 10− 2 Sm− 1 at 873 K temperature and the lowest value of activation energy ΔEa = 0.88 eV were found for 10Sc1CeSZ thinfilmsformed at 4 Å/s deposition rate.
Keywords Scandium and cerium stabilized zirconium (10Sc1CeSZ); Electron beam deposition; Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); Ionic conductivity
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ID=93

Ethanol internal steam reforming in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell

Authors Stefan Diethelm, Jan Van Herle
Source
Journal of Power Sources
Volume: 196, Issue: 17, Pages: 7355–7362
Time of Publication: 2011-09
Abstract This study investigates the performance of a standard Ni–YSZ anode supported cell under ethanolsteamreforming operating conditions. Therefore, the fuelcell was directly operated with a steam/ethanol mixture (3 to 1 molar). Other gas mixtures were also used for comparison to check the conversion of ethanol and of reformate gases (H2, CO) in the fuelcell. The electrochemical properties of the fuelcell fed with four different fuel compositions were characterized between 710 and 860 °C by I–V and EIS measurements at OCV and under polarization. In order to elucidate the limiting processes, impedance spectra obtained with different gas compositions were compared using the derivative of the real part of the impedance with respect of the natural logarithm of the frequency. Results show that internalsteamreforming of ethanol takes place significantly on Ni–YSZ anode only above 760 °C. Comparisons of results obtained with reformate gas showed that the electrochemical cell performance is dominated by the conversion of hydrogen. The conversion of CO also occurs either directly or indirectly through the water–gas shift reaction but has a significant impact on the electrochemical performance only above 760 °C.
Keywords SOFC; Ni&#8211;YSZ anode; Ethanol; Internal reforming; Coking; Impedance spectroscopy
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ID=91

Proton Conductivity in Mixed B-Site Doped Perovskite Oxide BaZr0.5In0.25Yb0.25O3−delta

Authors Istaq Ahmed,1,2 Francis G. Kinyanjui,1 Seikh M. H. Rahman,1 Patrick Steegstra,3 Sten G. Eriksson,1 and Elisabet Ahlberg3
Source
J. Electrochem. Soc.
Volume: Volume 157, Issue: Issue 12, Pages: B1819-B182
Time of Publication: 2010-12
Abstract A wet chemical route was used to prepare the oxygen deficient codoped perovskite oxide BaZr0.5In0.25Yb0.25O3−. Analysis of X-ray powder diffraction data showed that the sample belongs to the cubic crystal system with space group Pmm. Dynamic thermogravimetric (TG) analysis confirmed complete filling of oxygen vacancies (V) by protonic defects (OH) during the hydration process. The proton conductivity was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The bulk and total conductivities of prehydrated BaZr0.5In0.25Yb0.25O3− were found to be 8.5×10−4 and 2.2×10−5 S cm−1, respectively, at 300°C. The total conductivity in the codoped perovskite oxide was higher compared to that of the respective single doped perovskite oxides with the same doping level. The bulk and grain-boundary mobility and diffusion coefficients of protons were calculated at 200°C using impedance and TG data to obtain the conductivity and proton concentration, respectively. The high bulk diffusivity (2.3×10−7 cm2 s−1) was obtained which indicates that the protons are more free to move in the heavily doped matrix compared to the lightly doped systems where trapping of protons occurs.
Keywords barium compounds, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, thermal analysis, vacancies (crystal), X-ray diffraction, zirconium compounds
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ID=68

A combined conductivity and DFT study of protons in PbZrO3 and alkaline earth zirconate perovskites

Authors
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 181, Issue: 3-4, Pages: 130-137
Time of Publication: 2010
Abstract The electrical properties of nominally undoped and 4 mol% Y-doped PbZrO3 have been investigated by AC conductivity measurements and impedance spectroscopy under various pH2O and pO2 at high temperatures. The results indicate that the defect structures are dominated by acceptors (Y dopant and/or Pb vacancies formed during synthesis). In dry atmosphere and at high temperatures, the acceptors are compensated by oxygen vacancies. These are hydrated and replaced by protonic defects (hydroxide ions on oxide ion sites) at higher pH2O and lower temperatures. In oxidizing atmospheres, a minority concentration of electron holes dominates the conductivity. At lower temperatures and in wet atmosphere, a significant protonic conductivity contribution is also observed. Based on pO2 and pH2O isotherms, a model for incorporation of protonic defects has been applied, and the standard enthalpy of hydration of oxygen vacancies in undoped PbZrO3 has been determined (− 1.07 ± 0.13 eV). The measured total conductivities are influenced by high grain boundary resistance. Hence, the enthalpy is at the present stage assigned to the polycrystalline ceramic material as such. Rough estimates of bulk proton mobility in Y-doped PbZrO3 yield uH+0 = 17 cm2K/Vs and ΔHm,H+ = 0.93 eV. A complementary DFT study of the hydration thermodynamics of PbZrO3 and the alkaline earth zirconate perovskites AZrO3 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) is also reported. The experimental and theoretical hydration enthalpies are compared with those of other ABO3 perovskites. Correlations between the hydration thermodynamics and other properties of the materials are discussed.
Keywords PbZrO3; CaZrO3; SrZrO3; BaZrO3; Conductivity; Proton; Proton mobility; DFT; Thermodynamics; Defects; Hydration
ID=67

Electrical conductivity and oxygen permeation properties of SrCoFeOx membranes

Authors Jay Kniep, Qinghua Yin, Izumi Kumakiri and Y.S. Lin
Source
Solid State Ionics
Volume: 180, Issue: 40, Pages: 1633-1639
Time of Publication: 2010
Abstract The total conductivity and oxygen permeation properties of dense SrCoFeOx membranes synthesized from the solid state method were studied in the temperature range of 700–900 °C. The SrCoFeOx membranes consist of an intergrowth (Sr4Fe6 − xCoxO13 ± δ), perovskite (SrFe1 − xCoxO3 − δ), and spinel (Co3 − xFexO4) phase. SrCoFeOx exhibits n-type and p-type conduction at low and high oxygen partial pressures, respectively, and has a total conductivity of 16.5 S/cm at 900 °C in air. The oxygen permeation fluxes for SrCoFeOx and SrFeCo0.5Ox membranes were measured with either an inert or carbon monoxide sweep gas. The oxygen permeation fluxes were higher through SrCoFeOx membranes than SrFeCo0.5Ox membranes and can be attributed to a difference in the amount and makeup of the perovskite phase present in each composition. The oxygen permeation fluxes with a carbon monoxide sweep gas were approximately two orders of magnitude larger than the fluxes measured with an inert sweep gas for both compositions. The large oxygen permeation fluxes observed with a carbon monoxide sweep are due to a higher driving force for oxygen transport and a reaction on the sweep side of the membrane that maintains a low oxygen partial pressure.
Keywords Mixed-conducting oxide membrane; Oxygen permeation; Strontium iron cobalt oxide
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